When Alex Wan moved to Atlanta in 1971, he was the only student of Asian descent in his class. His grandmother grew Chinese cabbage and melons in their garden because there was nowhere close to buy them. There was no Chinese church, so services were held in people’s homes.
1971年移居亚特兰大时,万斯祺(Alex Wan)是班上唯一的亚裔学生。祖母在自家院里种了白菜和瓜果,因为附近没有地方能买到。当地没有华人教堂,所以礼拜都在人们家中进行。
Over the years, Asian immigrants and their children have settled not only in the city of Atlanta, but in bustling enclaves outside. The populations of nearby Duluth and Johns Creek, both upscale suburbs, are now about a quarter Asian. Mr. Wan, whose parents came to the United States from Taiwan in the late 1960s, went on to become the first person of Asian descent elected to the Atlanta City Council.
多年来,亚裔移民及其后代不仅定居在亚特兰大市区,也生活在繁华的城郊亚裔聚居地。在附近的高档郊区杜鲁斯和约翰斯克里克,现有约四分之一人口是亚裔。万斯祺的父母在上世纪60年代末从台湾来到美国,而他则成了首位被选进亚特兰大市议会的亚裔。
The speed and scale of that change is a story of American success: immigrants starting businesses, building churches, sending their children to school and, eventually, gaining power through political representation. But now, along with success and visibility has come something else — fear. Amid a rising tide of anti-Asian violence nationally, the shooting death of eight people, six of them women of Asian descent, has shaken Asians in Atlanta like nothing in his memory.
这样的变化速度和规模正是美国成功的写照:移民创业,建造教堂,送孩子上学,最终通过政治代表获得权力。但现在,伴随成功和关注度而来的还有另一种东西——恐惧。在全美反亚裔暴力浪潮高涨之际,八人遭枪杀(其中六人是亚裔女性)的事件给亚特兰大亚裔群体带来的震动,在万斯祺的记忆中是前所未有的。
“Whatever the justification was, the fact is, it was Asian women who were killed,” said Mr. Wan, who is 53. He said one of the shooting sites was less than a mile from his house. “Everything that’s been swirling around, all this anti-Asian sentiment has come to a head with the worst possible thing — murders.”
“不管有什么理由,事实就是,被杀的是亚裔女性,”53岁的万斯祺说。他说其中一个枪击点距离他家不到一英里。“所有这一切,所有的反亚裔情绪已经达到了最糟糕的境地——谋杀。”
周二,发生致命枪击事件后,亚特兰大市警察在黄金水疗馆外巡逻。
周二,发生致命枪击事件后,亚特兰大市警察在黄金水疗馆外巡逻。 Christopher Aluka Berry/Reuters
He added: “The Asian population has become a very easy and very visible target.”
他还说:“亚裔群体已经成为非常容易和非常明显的攻击目标。”
The fear, of course, has radiated far beyond Atlanta. Nearly 3,800 hate incidents, running the gamut from name calling to physical assaults were reported against Asian-Americans and Pacific Islanders nationwide over the last year, according to Stop AAPI Hate.
当然,这种恐惧已经蔓延到亚特兰大之外。据“制止仇恨亚太裔美国人组织”(Stop AAPI Hate)称,过去一年全美发生了近3800起针对亚裔美国人和太平洋岛民的仇恨事件,从辱骂到人身攻击无所不有。
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The report was released the same day that eight people, six of them of Asian descent, were fatally shot at three Atlanta-area massage parlors. Stop AAPI Hate called the shootings “an unspeakable tragedy” for the victims’ families and an Asian-American community that has “been reeling from high levels of racist attacks.”
该报告发布的同一天,在亚特兰大地区三家按摩店共有八人被枪杀,其中六人是亚裔制止仇恨亚太裔美国人组织称,对于受害者家人和“一直遭受严重种族主义攻击”的美国亚裔群体来说,这些枪击案是“无法用言语形容的悲剧”。
It said the shootings “will only exacerbate the fear and pain that the Asian-American community continues to endure.”
该组织称枪击案“只会加剧亚裔群体一直在忍受的恐惧和痛苦”。
Outrage and anguish with the killings reverberated from the nation’s capital to the West Coast. The Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus said the group was “horrified by the news coming out of GA at a time when we’re already seeing a spike in anti-Asian violence. Although details are still unfolding, at least half of the victims appear to be Asian-American women. Our hearts go out to the victims & their families.”
从首都到西海岸,杀戮事件引发的愤怒和痛苦都在回荡。国会亚太裔美国人党团(The Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus)称其“在反亚裔暴力已经激增之际,对佐治亚州的新闻感到愕然。尽管细节仍在调查中,但至少一半的受害者似乎都是亚裔女性。我们的心与受害者及其家属同在”。
Max Leung, the founder of a group called the SF Peace Collective, which patrols streets in San Francisco to protect Asian communities from violence, acknowledged that not all facts are known about the motivation of the Georgia shooting, but said: “At the end of the day, regardless of what he says his motives were, Asian-Americans are being attacked and killed for many reasons right now. It’s an epidemic. And it’s on the rise.”
旧金山和平集体(SF Peace Collective)是一个负责巡逻旧金山街道以保护亚裔社区免受暴力侵害的组织,其创始人马克斯·梁(Max Leung,音)承认,关于佐治亚州枪击案的动机尚有不明之处,但他说:“归根结底,不管他说自己的动机是什么,亚裔美国人正在因为各种原因遭到袭击和杀害。这是一种流行病,而且正在扩散。”
Asians represent a majority of the increase in foreign-born people in the United States since 2010, and now make up about 6 percent of the American population, up from about 2 percent in 1980, according to William Frey, chief demographer at the Brookings Institution. People of Asian descent in the United States come from dozens of countries, but according to Pew, the largest shares come from just six: China, the Philippines, India, Vietnam, Korea and Japan.
布鲁金斯学会(Brookings Institution)首席统计学家威廉·弗雷(William Frey)表示,2010年以来美国增加的海外出生人口中,亚裔占据多数,已构成美国总人口的6%左右,相比之下1980年为2%。美国亚裔人口来自数十个国家,但皮尤(Pew)数据显示,占比最大的只有六国:中国、菲律宾、印度、越南、韩国和日本。
In Georgia, Asians are more than 4 percent of the population, up from less than half a percent in 1980. In Atlanta, as nationwide, they are part of a diverse agglomeration of people with distinct languages, histories and cultures rather than a homogeneous grouping. The four most numerous groups in Georgia are from India, Vietnam, China and Korea, according to Mr. Frey.
亚裔在佐治亚州总人口中的比例超过4%,在1980年还不到0.5%。和全国一样,亚特兰大的亚裔由拥有不同语言、历史和文化的多元群体组成,而非一个同质化群体。弗雷称,佐治亚州人口最多的亚裔群体分别来自印度、越南、中国和韩国。
Similarly, the locales of the killings on Tuesday reflect the integration of Asians into non-Asian communities around Atlanta. None took place in areas with a particular ethnic profile. Cherokee County, where the first four deaths occurred is an exurban area north of Atlanta where only 2 percent of the population is Asian. The spa was in a strip mall, wedged between a beauty salon and a clothing boutique run by a Latina woman. The shootings in the city of Atlanta took place in a commercial area with a long history of adult businesses, novelty stores and strip clubs.
同理,周二发生杀戮的地点也反映了亚裔融入亚特兰大周边非亚裔社区的情况。没有一起事件发生在具有特定种族背景的地区。前四起死亡发生在切诺基县,位于亚特兰大以北的远郊,那里只有2%的人口是亚裔。水疗馆位于一处沿路商业区,夹在一家美容沙龙和一家由拉美裔妇女经营的精品服装店之间。亚特兰大市区的枪击案发生在一个商业区,这里的成人商店、精品礼物店和脱衣舞俱乐部经营历史悠久。
布福德高速公路是亚特兰大最早出现的亚裔聚居地,这一片不起眼的沿路商业区和停车场到处都是熙熙攘攘的餐厅,供应越南河粉、中式点心和和韩国烤肉。
布福德高速公路是亚特兰大最早出现的亚裔聚居地,这一片不起眼的沿路商业区和停车场到处都是熙熙攘攘的餐厅,供应越南河粉、中式点心和和韩国烤肉。 Dustin Chambers/Reuters
Still, Asians have quietly become a political and cultural force around Atlanta over the past few decades. That played out first and most conspicuously on the Buford Highway, a stretch of modest strip malls and parking lots that begins just north of Midtown Atlanta and continues northeast through the city and into nearby suburbs. The area is studded with bustling restaurants serving Vietnamese pho, Chinese dim sum and Korean barbecue.
尽管如此,亚裔在过去几十年仍悄然成为亚特兰大周边的一股政治和文化力量。这种现象首先在布福德高速公路(Buford Highway)上出现,也在这里最为明显,一片并不起眼的沿路商业区和停车场从亚特兰大市中心北部开始,向东北穿越整个市区,一直延伸到附近的郊区。该地区遍布着熙熙攘攘的餐厅,供应越南河粉、中式点心和和韩国烤肉。
Over the years, as Asian-Americans moved into Atlanta’s suburbs and exurbs, new neighborhoods sprang up and culture spread. Sarah Park helped start a food tour of new Korean enclaves called Seoul of the South, in her job promoting tourism and conventions in Gwinnett County, where 12 percent of the population is of Asian heritage.
这些年来,随着亚裔迁入亚特兰大郊区,新的社区如雨后春笋般涌现,亚裔文化也传播开来。格威纳特县12%的人口是亚裔,莎拉·朴(Sarah Park,音)在旅游和会议推广工作中协助启动了“南方首尔”(Seoul of the South)一个面向新韩裔聚居地的美食旅游项目。
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“Atlanta’s Korean food scene is comparable to New York and Los Angeles,” she said. “We have restaurants with our grandmothers’ cooking. But we also made a good transition to the next generation of chefs.”
“亚特兰大的韩国美食可以与纽约和洛杉矶相媲美,”她说。“在我们的餐厅能尝到祖母的手艺。但我们也成功过渡到了下一代厨师。”
The growth of Asian-American communities around Atlanta has only recently translated to significant political power. There are now six Asian-Americans in the State Legislature, including Michelle Au, a Chinese-American doctor who was elected to the State Senate as a Democrat last year. There were none two decades ago.
亚特兰大周边亚裔社区的增长直到最近才转化为显著的政治力量。如今该州议会中有六名亚裔,其中包括华裔医生欧晓瑜(Michelle Au),她去年以民主党身份当选州参议员。20年前这一数字是零。
The new representation will be especially important given the anti-Asian incidents, particularly Tuesday’s shootings, said Cam Ashling, a Democratic activist who helped with an aggressive get-out-the-vote effort in one of the only tightly contested House seats in the nation that Democrats flipped last year — Georgia’s Seventh Congressional District.
民主党活动人士卡姆·阿什林(Cam Ashling)说,鉴于这些反亚裔事件,特别是周二的枪击,新获得的众议员席位将变得尤为重要。在去年的众议院选举中,佐治亚州第七国会选区成为全国被民主党翻转的少数竞争激烈的席位之一,阿什林积极发起的拉票活动起到了帮助。
“We just came off all this organizing and we all are very connected to each other,” said Ms. Ashling, 40, who came to Georgia in 1988 as a refugee from Vietnam. “We’ve been texting each other all night and this morning. I’ve got a meeting at my house tonight.”
“我们才刚完成所有这些组织工作,彼此之间的联系都非常紧密,”40岁的阿什林说,她于1988年以越南难民的身份来到佐治亚州。“我们整晚和今早都在发短信联络彼此。今晚我家要举行一次会议。”
She said activists were preparing to push their newly elected representatives to enact protections and take other action.
她说,活动人士正准备推动他们新当选的议员制定保护政策,并采取其他行动。
“We need the people whom we spent all this time and energy electing to stand up to the racism, not just put out a statement,” she said.
“我们需要那些我们花了这么多时间和精力选出来的人站出来反对种族主义,而不仅仅是发表一份声明,”她说。
越南难民卡姆·阿什林表示,活动人士正准备推动当选议员制定保护亚裔的政策。
越南难民卡姆·阿什林表示,活动人士正准备推动当选议员制定保护亚裔的政策。 Nicole Craine for The New York Times
Asian immigrants are more educated, on average in the country, than native-born Americans, but Ms. Ashling’s parents were working class. She remembers one pho restaurant when they arrived in the 1980s, but her parents, a forklift operator and a worker in a plastic foam cup factory, rarely went, because they had neither the money nor time off from working.
在美国,亚裔移民的平均受教育程度高于本土出生的美国人,但阿什林的父母属于工薪阶层。她还记得上世纪80年代他们来到这里时,当地有一家越南餐厅,但她的父母很少去。她那开叉车和在泡沫塑料杯厂打工的双亲既没有钱,也由于工作繁重而没有时间。
“My parents made like $5 and $7 an hour,” Ms. Ashling said. “They were not the fancy Asians who are now loaded.”
“我父母的时薪大概是五美元和七美元,”阿什林说。“他们不是现在那种有得是钱的时髦亚裔。”
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Today, her mother, 69, sings in the choir at a large Vietnamese Catholic church, which has a school where children learn Vietnamese.
如今,她69岁的母亲在一处大型越南裔天主教堂的唱诗班唱歌,那里还有教授孩子学习越南语的学校。
Still, Asian immigrants, both in recent decades and now, have generally been highly educated, often working as doctors, professors and engineers. Mr. Frey of Brookings said about 45 percent of all immigrants aged 25 and older who came between 2010 and 2019 were college graduates, compared to about a third among the native-born population.
但无论是近几十年还是当下,亚裔移民普遍都受过高等教育,职业通常是医生、教授和工程师。布鲁金斯学会的弗雷表示,2010年至2019年间来美的所有25岁及以上移民里,约有45%是大学毕业生,而在本土出生的人口中,这一比例约为三分之一。
Baoky Vu, who lives in suburban DeKalb County and is a former commissioner to George W. Bush’s Presidential Advisory Commission on Asian-Americans and Pacific Islanders, said the children of Asian immigrants, now reaching their 30s and 40s, were more politically engaged than their immigrant parents, who were often focused on keeping a small business afloat and children fed.
住在迪卡尔布县郊区的吴保奇(Baoky Vu,音)曾在乔治·W·布什(George W. Bush)政府中担任总统顾问委员会(Presidential Advisory Commission)的亚裔美国人和太平洋岛民事务专员。他说那些如今到了三四十岁年纪的亚裔移民后代比他们的移民父母更关心政治,后者往往只关注如何维持自己的小生意,养活孩子。
“The attitude has been, it’s not my problem so I don’t have to worry about it,” said Mr. Vu, who came from Vietnam in the 1970s. But he said younger Asian-Americans are different, volunteering in political campaigns, running for public office and starting nonprofit groups focused on public affairs.
“(他们)的心态一直是,这不是我的问题,所以我不必担心,”吴保奇说,他在上世纪70年代从越南来美。但他说,年轻亚裔则不同,他们在政治竞选活动中做志愿者,去竞选公职,创办关注公共事务的非营利组织。
That evolution is particularly important given the current wave of tensions and unease, he said.
他说,鉴于目前的紧张局势和不安情绪,这种变化特别重要。
“You can’t just cower in fear,” he said. “You have to stand up for justice. This is not just an Asian-American problem. This is an American problem.”
“你不能只在恐惧中畏缩不前,”他说。“你必须捍卫正义。这不仅仅是亚裔的问题,也是整个美国的问题。”