BERN, Switzerland — Against a fiery sky, North Korea’s former leaders Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il watch with beaming smiles as missiles whiz above them in bursts of light and clouds of smoke. The painting — “The Missiles,” by Pak Yong-chol — is one of the collector Uli Sigg’s prized possessions, acquired through persistence, persuasion and contacts forged during his term as Switzerland’s ambassador to North Korea in the 1990s.
瑞士伯尔尼——朝鲜前领导人金日成和金正日在火红的天空下,面带灿烂的笑容,观看飞驰过头顶的导弹发出光芒和烟雾。这幅朴勇哲(Pak Yong-chol,音)创作的油画《导弹》(The Missiles)是收藏家乌利·希克(Uli Sigg)的珍藏品之一,是他通过坚持不懈的努力和劝说,以及在1990年代担任瑞士驻朝鲜大使期间建立的关系而获得的。
Sigg said he used to visit the North Korean national art museum, in the capital, Pyongyang, whose works glorify the country’s strength. He was already familiar with the Socialist Realist style of art favored by the Communist governments of China and the Soviet Union, he added — but he was struck by North Korea’s more emotional variant.
希克说,他曾经参观位于首都平壤的朝鲜国家美术馆,其作品美化了该国的实力。他还说,他已熟悉中国共产党和苏联政府所偏爱的社会主义现实主义的艺术风格,但他对朝鲜更具情感色彩的元素感到震惊。
“It was then that I decided I had to acquire an artwork,” he said in a recent video interview. “You can buy paintings showing happy laborers with rosy cheeks. But I wanted one with the leaders.”
“那时我决定必须买一幅艺术品,”他在最近的一次视频采访中说。“你可以买那种画着两颊红润的快乐的工人的油画。但是我想要一幅画有领导人的。”
4月,乌利·希克在香港M+博物馆外。希克向这个新博物馆捐赠了1400幅中国艺术作品。
4月,乌利·希克在香港M+博物馆外。希克向这个新博物馆捐赠了1400幅中国艺术作品。 Dan Leung
His first approaches to North Korean officials were rebuffed, he said. Images of the dictators “were not allowed to be shown outside North Korea, except in the embassies — and they are certainly not in private hands,” he said. “That was unimaginable.”
他说,他第一次对朝鲜官员提出该要求时,被断然回绝。这些独裁者的画像“不允许在朝鲜以外的地方展示,除了在大使馆里——而且这些照片当然不会落入私人之手”,他说。“那是不可想象的。”
Instead, Sigg was offered a portrait of himself, which would be painted by one of the regime’s leading artists. “I said ‘I don’t want a portrait of me, I want a portrait of the leaders,’” he said.
对方反而提议给希克画一幅肖像,由该政权的一位首席画家作画。他说:“我说,‘我不想要我的肖像,我想要领导人的肖像。’”
Sigg eventually persuaded the officials, he said, and built one of the most important collections of North Korean art outside the country. Pieces from the collection have recently gone on display at the Kunstmuseum in Bern, Switzerland, in a rare presentation of North Korean art in the West. More unusual still, the show displays the works alongside art from the country’s neighbor and enemy, South Korea.
希克说,他最终说服了官员,并在朝鲜以外构建了最重要的朝鲜艺术品收藏系列之一。该系列的作品最近在瑞士伯尔尼美术馆(Kunstmuseum Bern)展出,罕见地在西方国家展示朝鲜的艺术品。更加不寻常的是,该展览还展出了来自该国敌对的邻国韩国的作品。
韩国艺术家咸京我的作品《水晶灯》。该作品在瑞士伯尔尼美术馆的《跨越边境》展览中展出。
韩国艺术家咸京我的作品《水晶灯》。该作品在瑞士伯尔尼美术馆的《跨越边境》展览中展出。 Kyungah Ham; Sigg Collection, Mauensee
Running through Sept. 5, the exhibition, called “Border Crossings,” was “sensitive” for both sides, Sigg said. Showing South Korean art is illegal in the North, and for many years, North Korean art was banned in the South, too. Even before the exhibition opened in late April, it prompted protests from both Koreas. Sigg, who left Switzerland’s foreign service in 1998, has needed his diplomatic skills again.
希克说,这场称为《穿越边境》(Border Crossings)的展览将一直开放至9月5日,对于朝鲜和韩国都是“敏感”话题。展出韩国艺术在朝鲜是非法的,而且多年以来,朝鲜艺术在韩国也被禁。甚至在展览4月开幕之前,它就已经引起了朝韩两国的抗议。自1998年离开瑞士外交服务的希克,再次需要将他的外交技巧派上用场。
Technically still at war, the two countries are separated by the 155 mile-long Demilitarized Zone fortified on both sides with barbed wire and anti-tank defenses. No one is allowed across the border. Though the artists of the divided peninsula share a common cultural tradition, they work in different worlds.
严格来说,朝韩仍然处于战争状态,两个国家被248公里长的非军事区分开,两边都装上了铁丝网和反坦克防御设施。禁止任何人越过边界。尽管这个被分割的半岛上的艺术家有着共同的文化传统,但他们身处不同的世界中工作。
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Those in the South enjoy creative freedom in a society whose pop music has spread across the world; Seoul, the capital, is a major Asian art hub with a lively, diverse gallery scene. In the North, all professional artists are organized in two official studios that work under the strict control of the communist dictatorship, isolated from international influences.
在以风靡世界的流行乐而闻名的韩国,艺术家们享有创作自由。首都首尔是亚洲重要的艺术中心,拥有充满活力的多样化的展出场景。在朝鲜,所有专业艺术家都被组织在两个官方工作室中,他们的工作受到共产党专政的严格控制,脱离国际影响。
The only paintings on public display in North Korea are official commissions from those studios. With dramatic theatricality, but in a realistic style, the country’s leaders are portrayed almost as religious icons, while workers appear as heroes, and landscapes accentuate the power and grandeur of its natural scenery.
在朝鲜公开展示的唯一画作是官方委托这些工作室所作。具有戏剧性的盛大场面,但以写实风格呈现,该国的领导人几乎被描绘成宗教偶像,而工人则被描绘成英雄,风景则突显其自然风光的力量和壮丽之处。
油画《大海》(2008)由朝鲜艺术家集体绘制的。该国所有专业画家都属于两个由政府严格控制的官方工作室。
油画《大海》(2008)由朝鲜艺术家集体绘制的。该国所有专业画家都属于两个由政府严格控制的官方工作室。 North Korea Collective; Sigg Collection, Mauensee
广廷渤的《华国锋在朝鲜》(1978)纪念时任中国总理访问朝鲜。
广廷渤的《华国锋在朝鲜》(1978)纪念时任中国总理访问朝鲜。 Guang Tingbo; M+ Sigg Collection
Sigg said he hoped that the exhibition would illuminate the contrasts between the two societies. “The core interest for me was this tension between the two Koreas which once formed one cultural space,” Sigg said. “This exhibition makes this tension more concrete.”
希克说,他希望这次展览能说明两个社会之间的对比。“我最感兴趣的是两个曾经形成同一个文化空间的国家之间的紧张关系,”希克说。“这次展览使这种张力体现地更加具象。”
The Kunstmuseum extended invitations for private tours to officials from the Swiss embassies of both North and South Korea before the official opening. Neither accepted. A spokesman for the South Korean Embassy said that the ambassador’s schedule had prevented him from attending; the North Korean Embassy didn’t respond.
在正式开放之前,伯尔尼美术馆向驻瑞士的朝鲜和韩国使馆官员发出了不公开观展的邀请。两个使馆均未接受。韩国大使馆发言人说,大使因日程安排无法参加。朝鲜大使馆没有回应。
But this year, Pyongyang’s representatives in Bern complained to Sigg about an artwork that the museum was using to promote the show on its website, he said. Adapted from a photograph, the watercolor “Two Great White Sharks” shows North Korea’s current leader, Kim Jong-un, surrounded by military personnel and peering into a reservoir where the deadly creatures glide beneath the surface. (Kathleen Bühler, the show’s curator, said the museum removed the work from the website, but not from the exhibition.)
但是他说,今年,驻伯尔尼的朝鲜代表向希克投诉一幅该博物馆用于在网站上宣传该展的艺术品。在根据一张照片画成的水彩画《两头大白鲨》中,朝鲜现任领导人金正恩在军人簇拥下凝视着一个水库,凶猛的生物在水面下游动。(该展览的策展人凯瑟琳·布勒[Kathleen Bühler]说,博物馆从网站上删除了这件作品,但没有从展览中移除。)
冯梦波的《两只大白鲨》(2014)。乌利·希克说,这件作品被用在展览的宣传上,遭到了朝鲜的投诉。
冯梦波的《两只大白鲨》(2014)。乌利·希克说,这件作品被用在展览的宣传上,遭到了朝鲜的投诉。 Feng Mengbo; Sigg Collection, Mauensee
While North Korean defensiveness was to be expected, Sigg said, he hadn’t counted on objections from democratic, liberal South Korea. The exhibition received a grant of $77,000 from the government’s Korea Foundation, which supports South Korean arts abroad. But weeks before the opening, lawmakers there accused the foundation of promoting North Korean propaganda in Switzerland. The South Korean Foreign Ministry asked Sigg to prove that none of the North Korean artworks had been purchased in breach of international sanctions against the North, he said.
希克说,虽然预料到了朝鲜的防备姿态,但没有预料到民主自由的韩国也表示了反对。展览从韩国政府旨在支持海外韩国艺术的韩国基金会(Korea Foundation)获得了7.7万美元的赠款。但是在开幕前几周,韩国议员指责该基金会在瑞士促进朝鲜宣传。他说,韩国外交部要求希克证明对朝鲜艺术品的购买均未违反对朝鲜的国际制裁。
As a neutral country, Switzerland maintains unusually good relations with North Korea. When Sigg became ambassador, in 1995, the North was in the grip of a bitter famine, and it was his task to inspect the fallout and report to the United Nations. (Swiss humanitarian agencies then taught North Korean farmers new techniques in potato cultivation and animal breeding.) Kim Jong-un even attended school in Bern at around the same time.
瑞士作为一个中立国家,与朝鲜保持着异常良好的关系。希克在1995年成为大使,当时朝鲜陷入严重的饥荒,他的任务是对其巡视并向联合国报告。(后来,瑞士人道主义机构向朝鲜农民传授了马铃薯种植和动物育种的新技术。)甚至金正恩大约也在同一时间在伯尔尼上学。
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Though he visited North Korea many times during his term, Sigg was based in Beijing, where he was also Switzerland’s ambassador to China. There, he and his wife socialized with many artists, he said, and contemporary Chinese art is the focus of his huge collection. A donation by Sigg of more than 1,400 Chinese works forms the basis of the new M+ museum in Hong Kong, which is set to open later this year.
希克虽然在任期内多次访问朝鲜,但由于身为瑞士驻中国大使,他的居住地仍在北京。他说,他和他的妻子在那里认识了许多艺术家,而中国当代艺术是他大量收藏品中的重点。希克捐赠的1400多幅中国作品构成了香港新博物馆M+的基础,该博物馆将于今年晚些时候开放。
Sigg said that he began collecting South Korean art in 2008, noting that the works he has acquired all address the division of Korea. The pain of the rupture immediately confronts visitors to the Bern museum with a painting of the Demilitarized Zone in the entry hall.
希克说,他从2008年开始收集韩国艺术品,并指出他所获得的所有作品都涉及朝韩分裂。在伯尔尼美术馆的门厅,一幅关于朝韩非军事区的油画使到访者立即感受到两国的裂痕带来的痛苦。
李世贤(音)创作的《红色之间》(2008)描绘的是朝韩非军事区。
李世贤(音)创作的《红色之间》(2008)描绘的是朝韩非军事区。 Sea Hyun-lee; Sigg Collection, Mauensee
“Between Red,” by Sea Hyun-lee, an artist from the South, is painted completely in shades of that color. Devoid of people, it echoes traditional Korean landscape painting with an elevated view of curving rivers, jagged mountains, clusters of abandoned houses and blossoming orchards whose fruit may have gone unharvested since the area between the two Koreas was sealed off in 1953.
南方艺术家李世贤(Sea-Hyun Lee,音)创作的《红色之间》(Between Red)被完全涂成标题里的颜色。作品中没有人物,而是与韩国传统山水画相呼应,从高处看弯曲的河流、参差不齐的山脉、成堆的废弃房屋和开花的果园,和也许自1953年朝韩分界开始就没有被收获的果实。
A different kind of pain is on view high above eye level in the same space, where a vast North Korean canvas hangs. Called “The Year of Shedding Bitter Tears,” the work depicts the 1994 funeral of Kim Il-sung. In a crowd of distraught onlookers, one man has sunk to the ground, his head almost on the pavement; another holds his hand to his heart in anguish. Kneeling women in uniform sob into their hands and handkerchiefs. Even the sky weeps from dark storm clouds.
在同一个空间里,高出视线的地方挂着一幅巨大的朝鲜油画,表达了另一种痛苦。名为《流下苦涩眼泪的一年》(The Year of Shedding Bitter Tears),该作品描绘了1994年金日成的葬礼。在悲伤的送行人群中,一名男子趴在地上,他的头几乎贴在了地上;另一个人将手放在胸前,表情痛苦。穿着军装的女子用手和手绢掩面哭泣。甚至连乌云密布的天空也在流泪。
Less melodramatic, but more moving, are the works in which South Korean artists attempt to make connections across the border. In an operation worthy of a Cold War spy thriller, Kyungah Ham used Chinese intermediaries to smuggle her textile designs and instructions to North Korean embroiderers, whom she paid to produce the works.
在试图制造跨越边境的联系时,韩国艺术家的作品相对没那么戏剧化,但更为动人。咸京我(Kyungah Ham)通过中国中介向朝鲜刺绣商走私了她的纺织品设计和说明,并付钱给刺绣商以完成这些作品,这样的行动可媲美冷战期间的间谍故事。
One of those, “Hiroshima & Nagasaki Mushroom Cloud,” is based on a black-and-white aerial photograph taken after the explosion of an atomic bomb at the end of World War II. “For those of us living in a divided country under the threat of nuclear weapons, the work is not simply a record of the past,” the artist says in an interview in the catalog. The embroideries, beautifully executed in long, even stitches, are a testament to North Korean craft expertise.
其中一个作品《广岛和长崎的蘑菇云》(Hiroshima & Nagasaki Mushroom Cloud)是基于二战结束时原子弹爆炸后拍摄的黑白航空照片。作品目录册中写道,咸京我在接受采访时说:“对于那些生活在分裂国家并受到核武器威胁的人们来说,这个作品不仅仅是过去的记录。”这幅刺绣的优美针迹长而均匀,是朝鲜能工巧匠实力的证明。
朝鲜艺术家的《流下苦涩的眼泪的一年》描绘了1994年金日成的葬礼,作者不详。
朝鲜艺术家的《流下苦涩的眼泪的一年》描绘了1994年金日成的葬礼,作者不详。 North Korea Collective; Sigg Collection, Mauensee
咸京我的《广岛和长崎的蘑菇云》。这幅作品由朝鲜刺绣商制成,设计和说明则是咸京我通过中国中介走私交给他们的。
咸京我的《广岛和长崎的蘑菇云》。这幅作品由朝鲜刺绣商制成,设计和说明则是咸京我通过中国中介走私交给他们的。 Kyungah Ham; Sigg Collection, Mauensee
Sojung Jun’s video work, “Early Arrival of the Future,” explores the shared heritage of North and South Koreans. She invited two pianists — Kim Cheol-woong, who defected from the North, and Uhm Eun-kyung, from the South — to arrange and perform a duet combining traditional melodies from a North Korean folk song and a South Korean nursery rhyme. In the filmed performance, they face each other across two grand pianos, and close-ups show their subtle coordination by eye contact and facial expression.
全昭正(Sojung Jun,音)的视频作品《未来提前到来》(Early Arrival of the Future)探讨了朝鲜人和韩国人的共同遗产。她邀请了两位钢琴家——脱北者金哲雄(Kim Cheol-woong)和韩国的严贤璟(Uhm Eun-kyung)——编排并演奏了结合朝鲜民歌和韩国童谣传统旋律的二重奏。表演被拍摄下来,他们面对面,隔着两架三角钢琴,在特写镜头中可以看到他们通过眼神交流和面部表情展现出的微妙协调。
But art can divide as well as connect — as Sigg knows only too well. He said that he had hesitated a long time before deciding to stage the exhibition in Bern, recognizing that it risked destroying his relations with North Korea. He said it was possible that he would now be denied entry if he applied for a visa.
但是,希克非常清楚,艺术既可以分裂也可以连接。他说,在决定在伯尔尼办展之前,他曾犹豫了很长时间,因为他意识到这有可能破坏他与朝鲜的关系。他说,如果他现在申请签证,可能会被拒。
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“What is new this time is that I am facing protests from two states — usually, it’s just one,” he said. “But I am relatively relaxed. You have to have a thick skin when it comes to contemporary art.”
“这次不同的是,我面临的抗议来自两个国家——通常只是一个国家,”他说。“但是我还算放松。当涉及到当代艺术时,你的脸皮必须要厚。”
Border Crossings: North and South Korean Art from the Sigg CollectionThrough Sept. 5 at the Kunstmuseum Bern in Switzerland; kunstmuseumbern.ch.
《穿越边境:希克收藏中的朝鲜和韩国艺术》在瑞士伯尔尼美术馆(kunstmuseumbern.ch)开放至9月5日。