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LONDON — “Is it time to stop looking at Gauguin altogether?”
倫敦——「是不是該徹底停止欣賞高更了呢?」
That’s the startling question visitors hear on the audio guide as they walk through the “Gauguin Portraits” exhibition at the National Gallery in London. The show, which runs through Jan. 26, focuses on Paul Gauguin’s depictions of himself, his friends and fellow artists, and of the children he fathered and the young girls he lived with in Tahiti.
倫敦國家美術館舉辦的「高更肖像」(Gauguin Portraits)展覽上,參觀者在語音導覽裡聽到了這樣一個令人驚詫的問題。該展覽將持續到1月26日,主要展出保羅·高更(Paul Gauguin)的肖像畫,描繪的對象包括他本人、他的朋友和其他藝術家、他的孩子們,以及在大溪地和他一起生活的女孩。
The standout portrait in the exhibition is “Tehamana Has Many Parents” (1893). It pictures Gauguin’s teenage lover, holding a fan.
展覽中格外引人注目的是作於1893年的《塔哈馬納的祖輩》(Tehamana Has Many Parents)。畫中描繪了高更的少女情人手持扇子的形象。
The artist “repeatedly entered into sexual relations with young girls, ‘marrying’ two of them and fathering children,” reads the wall text. “Gauguin undoubtedly exploited his position as a privileged Westerner to make the most of the sexual freedoms available to him.”
畫家「反覆與年輕女孩發生性關係,『娶』了其中兩個,並生了孩子,」牆上的解說寫道。「高更無疑利用了他的西方人特權,從而充分享受他所得到的性自由。」
《早安,高更先生》(1889)。
《早安,高更先生》(1889)。 Hammer Museum
Born in Paris, the son of a radical journalist, Gauguin spent his early years in Peru before returning to France. He took up painting in his 20s, while working as a stockbroker, a profession he would soon give up — along with his wife and children — to make art full time. He set sail for Tahiti in 1891, searching for the exotic surroundings he had known as a boy in Peru. Gauguin spent most of the 12 remaining years of his life in Tahiti and on the French Polynesian island of Hiva Oa, cohabiting with adolescent girls, fathering more children, and producing his best-known paintings.
高更出生於巴黎,是一個激進派記者的兒子,他早年在秘魯度過,然後回到法國。他在20多歲的時候開始畫畫,當時還是個股票經紀人,但沒過多久他就放棄了這個職業,也放棄了妻子和孩子,全職從事藝術創作。他於1891年啟程前往大溪地,追尋他在秘魯的童年記憶裡那種異國情調。餘生的12年裡,高更的大部分時間在大溪地和法屬波利尼西亞的希瓦瓦島上度過,與青春期女孩同居,生了更多的孩子,創作了他最著名的作品。
In the international museum world, Gauguin is a box-office hit. There have been a half-dozen exhibitions of his work in the last few years alone, including important shows in Paris, Chicago and San Francisco. Yet in an age of heightened public sensitivity to issues of gender, race and colonialism, museums are having to reassess his legacy.
高更是國際博物館的票房熱門。僅在過去的幾年中,他的作品就進行了六次展覽,包括在巴黎芝加哥舊金山的重要展覽。然而,在公眾對性別、種族和殖民主義問題日益敏感的時代,博物館不得不重新評估他的藝術遺產。
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A couple of decades ago, an exhibition on the same theme “would have been a great deal more about formal innovation,” said Christopher Riopelle, a co-curator of the National Gallery show. Now, everything must be viewed “in a much more nuanced context,” he added.
此次國家美術館展的聯合策展人克里斯托弗·里奧佩爾(Christopher Riopelle)說,放在幾十年前,同一主題的展覽「會更注重形式創新」。而現在,他說,所有內容都必須「放到一種更微妙的語境中」去看。
“I don’t think, any longer, that it’s enough to say, ‘Oh well, that’s the way they did it back then,’ ” he said.
他說:「我不再覺得,只是說一句『哦,那時候的人就是那樣的』就足夠了。」
《野蠻人童話》(1902)。
《野蠻人童話》(1902)。 Museum Folkwang
Mr. Riopelle described Gauguin as “a very complicated person, a very driven person, a very callous person,” and said he was “disappointed” that his overwhelming urge to make art “led him to hurt or use so many people badly.”
里奧佩爾將高更描述為「一個非常複雜的人,一個非常有緊迫感的人,一個非常冷酷的人」,並說他被藝術創作的衝動淹沒,「導致他嚴重傷害或利用了許多人,」這讓里奧佩爾感到「失望」。
The show was co-produced with the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa and opened in Ottawa in late May. A few days before the opening, the museum’s newly appointed director, Sasha Suda, and the exhibition’s curators decided to edit some of the wall texts after touring the show. Nine labels were changed to avoid culturally insensitive language, according to the museum’s press office.
該展覽與位於渥太華的加拿大國立美術館聯合舉辦,並於5月下旬在渥太華開幕。開幕前幾天,博物館新任命的館長薩沙·蘇達(Sasha Suda)和展覽的策展人在參觀了展覽後,決定修改一些牆面上的解說文字。館方媒體部門說,為了避免缺乏文化敏感的文字,更改了九個作品標籤。
In Ottawa, the title “Head of a Savage, Mask” was shown with an extended label explaining that the words ‘savage’ and ‘barbarian,’ “considered offensive today, reflect attitudes common to Gauguin’s time and place.” Elsewhere, his “relationship with a young Tahitian woman” was changed to “his relationship with a 13- or 14-year-old Tahitian girl.”
在渥太華,《野蠻人頭像(面具)》(Head of a Savage, Mask)附有一個詳盡的標籤,解釋「savage」(野人)和「barbarian」(蠻人)這樣的詞語「在今天被認為具有侵犯性,但反映了高更所處時代與地域普遍存在的態度」。還有一些地方把他「與一名大溪地年輕女性的關係」改為「他與一名13或14歲的大溪地女孩的關係」。
Ms. Suda said that out of 2,313 feedback cards submitted by visitors at the Canadian exhibition, about 50 were complaints about Gauguin and about the museum programming.
蘇達說,在加拿大展覽的參觀者提交的2313張反饋卡中,大約有50張是關於高更和關於博物館項目的投訴。
The show should “have addressed these issues in a more open and transparent way that connected with contemporary audiences,” Ms. Suda said in an interview. Addressing “blind spots” in the work of historical artists “could make those artists more relevant,” she added.
該展覽「本應以一種更加開放和透明的、與當代觀眾相通的方式處理這些問題,」蘇打在接受採訪時說。去面對歷史上的藝術家在作品中存在的「盲點」,這樣「可以使這些藝術家更具相關性,」她還說。
《高貴死亡》(1892)。
《高貴死亡》(1892)。 The J. Paul Getty Museum
To other museum professionals, re-examining the lives of past artists from a 21st-century perspective is risky, because it could lead to the boycott of great art.
對於其他博物館專業人士而言,從21世紀的角度重新審視過去藝術家的生活是一件冒險的事,因為這可能導致偉大的藝術遭到抵制。
“The person, I can totally abhor and loathe, but the work is the work,” said Vicente Todolí, who was Tate Modern’s director when it staged a major Gauguin exhibition in 2010, and is now the artistic director of the Pirelli HangarBicocca art foundation in Milan.
位於米蘭的倍耐力比可卡機庫(Pirelli HangarBicocca)藝術基金會總監維森特·托多利(Vicente Todolí)說:「對於這個人,我可以完全憎惡和討厭,但作品就是作品。」托多利曾任泰特現代藝術館館長,任內該館於2010年舉辦了高更的大型作品展。
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“Once an artist creates something, it doesn’t belong to the artist anymore: It belongs to the world,” he said. Otherwise, he cautioned, we would stop reading the anti-Semitic author Louis-Ferdinand Céline, or shun Cervantes and Shakespeare if we found something unsavory about them.
他說:「一旦藝術家創造了某種東西,它便不再屬於這個藝術家:它屬於世界。」否則,他告誡說,我們就要停止閱讀反猶作家路易-費迪南·塞利納(Louis-Ferdinand Céline)或迴避塞萬提斯和莎士比亞,因為我們發現了他們不光彩的事。
Yet Ashley Remer, a New Zealand-based American curator who in 2009 founded girlmuseum.org, an online museum focused on the representation of young girls in history and culture, insisted that in Gauguin’s case the man’s actions were so egregious that they overshadowed the work.
然而,常駐紐西蘭的美國策展人阿什莉·雷默(Ashley Remer)堅持認為,在高更這件事上,這個男人的行為是如此惡劣,以至於蓋過了作品本身。她在2009年創立了girlmuseum.org,一家專注於年輕女孩在歷史和文化中的呈現的在線博物館。
《異國夏娃》(1890)。
《異國夏娃》(1890)。 Pola Museum of Art
“He was an arrogant, overrated, patronizing pedophile, to be very blunt,” she said. If his paintings were photographs, they would be “way more scandalous,” and “we wouldn’t have been accepting of the images,” she added.
「直白地說,他是一個傲慢、過譽、居高臨下的戀童癖,」她說。假如他的畫作是照片,引起的憤慨會「嚴重的多」,並且「我們一開始就不會接受這些圖像」,她補充說。
Ms. Remer questioned the constant exhibitions of Gauguin and the Austrian artist Egon Schiele, who also depicted nude underage models, and the ways those shows were put together. “I’m not saying take down the works: I’m saying lay it all bare about the whole person,” she said.
雷默還質疑了層出不窮的高更和奧地利藝術家埃貢·席勒(Egon Schiele)展(後者還描繪了裸體未成年模特),以及這些展覽的製作方式。「我不是說要撤下這些作品:我是說要把藝術家整個人都公之於眾,」她說。
Gauguin remains a tourist draw in Polynesia and the South Pacific. There is even a luxury cruise line that tours the region that is named after him. But to many locals, the painter’s clichéd representations of lush, exotic islands full of dusky maidens with no voice or identity are tiresome.
高更仍是波利尼西亞和南太平洋旅遊的一個賣點。甚至還有一條遊覽該地區的豪華游輪專線是以他命名的。但是對許多當地人來說,他們對這個畫家筆下的俗套描繪感到厭倦——鬱鬱蔥蔥、異國情調的島嶼,滿是無聲又無名的朦朧少女。
“Gauguin, you piss me off,” begins “Two Nudes On a Tahitian Beach, 1894,” a poem by the New Zealand poet and academic Selina Tusitala Marsh.
「高更,你把我惹火了,」這是紐西蘭詩人和學者賽琳娜·杜西塔拉·馬什(Selina Tusitala Marsh)的詩作《1894年,大溪地海灘上的兩個裸體》(Two Nudes On a Tahitian Beach, 1894)的開頭。
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The anonymity of his Tahitian portraits is another cause of frustration. In the 2009 photographic series “Dee and Dallas Do Gauguin,” the New Zealand-born Samoan artist Tyla Vaeau has cut out the faces in Gauguin reproductions and inserted photos of her own sister and friend.
他的大溪地肖像的匿名性是另一個引發不滿的地方。在2009年的攝影系列「迪和達拉斯仿高更」(Dee and Dallas Do Gauguin)中,紐西蘭出生的薩摩亞族藝術家泰拉·瓦伊奧(Tyla Vaeau)剪下了高更作品複製品上的面孔,換成了她姐妹和朋友的照片。
Gauguin’s art is a problem “if it continues to be used to frame the Pacific in this timeless, semi-damaged past, when actually there’s so much going on,” said Caroline Vercoe, a senior lecturer in art history at the University of Auckland who is part Samoan and is participating in the National Gallery in London’s talk and film program. “It’s such a lively and dynamic culture within the indigenous context as well.”
如果高更的藝術「繼續被用來將太平洋地區置於一個永恆的、半損毀的過去中,儘管那裡有那麼多事在發生」,那它就成了一個問題,奧克蘭大學藝術史高級講師卡洛琳·韋爾科(Caroline Vercoe)說。有薩摩亞族血統的韋爾科正在參與國家美術館在倫敦的談話和電影項目。「而在原住民語境下,這是如此生動活潑的一種文化。」
非裔美國畫家凱因德·威利的《午休》(2019),出自藝術家在大溪地創作的一個受高更啟發的繪畫系列。
非裔美國畫家凱因德·威利的《午休》(2019),出自藝術家在大溪地創作的一個受高更啟發的繪畫系列。 Kehinde Wiley; ADAGP, Paris; via Galerie Templon
Even to his admirers, Gauguin invites questioning. The African-American painter Kehinde Wiley — who described Gauguin as one of his idols in a 2017 interview, but also as “creepy” — recently painted a series in Tahiti inspired by Gauguin that depicts the mahu, a nonbinary community considered a “third gender” in Polynesia.
甚至高更的仰慕者也不禁提出質疑。非裔美國畫家凱因德·威利(Kehinde Wiley)在2017年的一次採訪中稱高更是他的偶像之一,但同時也認為他「讓人發毛」——最近,他在大溪地創作了一系列由高更啟發的畫作,描繪了波利尼西亞的mahu,一個被認為是「第三性別」的非二元群體。
“I love his paintings, but I find him a little bit strange,” Mr. Wiley says in a National Gallery film. “The ways we see black and brown bodies from the Pacific are shot through his sense of desire. But how do you change the narrative? How do you change the way of looking?”
「我喜歡他的畫,但我覺得他有點奇怪,」威利在國家美術館的影片中說。「我們是通過他的慾望感官,看到太平洋島嶼上那些黑色和棕色的身體的。但你如何改變敘事?你如何變換觀看的方式?」
To ensure that Gauguin’s artistic legacy is not besmirched by his “marriages” to underage girls, these relationships should be covered in exhibitions, said Line Clausen Pedersen, a Danish curator who has put on several Gauguin shows. With each exhibition, “another layer is peeled off the protection of history that he has somehow enjoyed,” she said. “Maybe the time is ripe to take off more layers than before.”
製作過多場高更展的丹麥策展人裡恩·克勞森·佩德森(Line Clausen Pedersen)說,為了確保高更的藝術遺產不會被他與未成年女孩的「婚姻」關係所污染,展覽中應包含這些關係。每舉辦一次展覽,「他曾經享受過的歷史保護就被揭掉一層,」她說。「也許現在可以揭掉更多的保護層了。」
“What’s left to say about Gauguin,” she added, “is for us to bring out all the dirty stuff.”
「如今關於高更還需要去說的是,」她還說,「我們要呈現出所有那些骯髒的東西。」