HONG KONG — Vladimir Lenin. Mao Zedong. And now: a giant reptile.
香港——弗拉基米尔·列宁(Vladimir Lenin)。毛泽东。现在又有了一只巨大的爬行动物。
Vietnam has embalmed a turtle that many saw as a symbol of the country’s independence and longevity until its death in 2016, the state-run news media reported.
The move catapults the animal, known as Cu Rua, or Great-Grandfather Turtle, into an elite club of famous figures embalmed and put on display by Communist regimes. That list includes Lenin, Mao, Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il of North Korea, and Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam’s own revolutionary hero.
此举令这只被称为“龟祖”(Cu Rua)的动物进入了一个共产主义政权的精英俱乐部,他们的遗体被防腐保存并对外展览。该名单包括列宁、毛泽东、朝鲜的金日成(Kim Il-sung)和金正日(Kim Jong-il),以及越南自己的革命英雄胡志明(Ho Chi Minh)。
“The extremely rare giant turtle has been plastinated and lodged in a temple” at Hoan Kiem Lake in Hanoi, the capital, where it once lived, the news site VnExpress reported on Tuesday. Plastination, a method of preserving bodies by infusing them with resins, was developed by a German anatomist in the 1970s.
In plastic as in life, Cu Rua carries immense spiritual and cultural significance in Vietnam.
A Vietnamese legend says that in the 15th century, a nationalist hero borrowed a magic sword, used it to drive out occupying Chinese forces and returned it to a turtle that surfaced in Hoan Kiem, the Lake of the Returned Sword. A turtle shrine was built on a small island in the lake in the 1880s, and the “great-grandfather” that died there in 2016 was widely thought to be the earthly embodiment of the ancient legend.
The “returned sword” legend is convenient for Vietnam’s government as a nationalist symbol of resistance to China, the country’s northern neighbor and former occupier.
Cu Rua’s death, which occurred during a heated national debate about Vietnam’s perceived political and economic dependence on China, prompted an outpouring of sadness. Some Vietnamese saw it as a bad omen for the country and the ruling Communist Party, which has been in power for decades.
Cu Rua was believed to have died of natural causes. But Hoan Kiem Lake is notoriously polluted, and the turtle was occasionally seen surfacing for oxygen in the years before it died.
龟祖经过了塑化处理,这是一种通过注入树脂来保存尸体的方法。 Luong Thai Linh/EPA, via Shutterstock
The death was also a loss for biological history because Cu Rua, who weighed an estimated 360 pounds, had been among the last of the Yangtze giant soft-shell turtles.
The species, known as Rafetus swinhoei, was once common in northern Vietnam’s Red River Delta but was hunted down in the 1970s and 1980s. Cu Rua’s death left just three known specimens — a couple in a zoo in Suzhou, China, and one turtle in Dong Mo Lake, outside Hanoi, whose sex has not been revealed.
该物种被称为斯氏鳖(Rafetus swinhoei),在越南北部的红河三角洲曾经很常见,但在上世纪七八十年代遭到大量猎杀。龟祖去世后,该物种现在已知存活的只有三只——中国苏州一家动物园里有一对,河内郊外的东莫湖中有一只,其性别不详。
The Suzhou turtles have produced no offspring, Tim McCormack, the program director of the Asian Turtle Program, a conservation group based in Hanoi, wrote last April. But he added that a fourth member of the species had been found in Xuan Khanh Lake, outside Hanoi, fueling hopes that wild Rafetus swinhoei could be brought together for captive breeding.
去年4月,位于河内的亚洲龟鳖保护组织(Asian Turtle program)项目主管蒂姆·麦考马克(Tim McCormack)写道,苏州那对鳖没有后代。但他补充说,该物种的第四个成员在河内郊外的宣汉湖被发现,这让人们燃起了希望,认为野生斯氏鳖可以被集中起来进行圈养繁殖。
A few months later, Mr. McCormack wrote that the program had potentially found a second turtle of the same species in Dong Mo Lake, but that more investigation was needed to confirm the discovery. He said on Wednesday that a “species recovery” alliance, including Vietnamese officials and international wildlife advocacy groups, was working on a plan to capture known members of the species, determine their sex and possibly breed them.
“Finding the second animal has got people excited in the species again, and we believe it can be saved if we can bring them together,” Mr. McCormack said in an email.
After Cu Rua’s death, the corpse was kept in cold storage for weeks at the Vietnam National Museum of Nature, at minus 15 degrees Celsius, as the authorities debated how best to preserve it.
“It is not simple to mummify the turtle, so intensive consideration is inevitable,” Nguyen Trung Minh, the museum’s director general, said in 2016. The government ultimately rejected traditional mummification techniques and opted to plastify the animal instead, with help from German experts.
“将海龟制成木乃伊并不简单,因此必须深入考虑,”该博物馆馆长阮忠明(Nguyen Trung Minh)于2016年表示。政府最终拒绝了传统的木乃伊制作技术,选择在德国专家的帮助下将龟祖塑化。
The plastinated Cu Rua now shares a room in Ngoc Son Temple with an embalmed relative who died in 1967. It can now be safely displayed at room temperature, but to shield it from dust, mildew and sunlight, the authorities have placed it in a glass case.
Ngoc Son Temple sits on an island in Hoan Kiem Lake that is connected to shore by a footbridge. The lake is a short drive from Ho Chi Minh’s granite-and-marble mausoleum, which Kim Jong-un, North Korea’s leader, visited this month after his failed summit meeting with President Trump.
玉山寺坐落在还剑湖中的小岛上,岛上有一座步行桥与湖岸相连。这座湖距离用花岗岩与大理石筑成的胡志明陵只有一小段车程。本月,朝鲜领导人金正恩(Kim Jong-un)与特朗普总统的峰会失败后参观那座陵墓。