MILAN — The lambent new tower of art galleries Rem Koolhaas and his Rotterdam-based firm, OMA, have designed for the Prada Foundation is a chameleon.
米蘭——雷姆·庫哈斯(Rem Koolhaas)和他位於鹿特丹的建築事務所OMA為普拉達基金會(Prada Foundation)設計的藝術展覽空間——一座新的塔樓散發著柔和的光澤,就像一隻變色龍。
From the east, the elevation presents a slim, unadorned, milk-white concrete block, nine stories high, punctured by loggias — a signpost, like the traditional village bell tower, rising above a low, scruffy neighborhood.
從東面看,一幢細長、未加修飾的乳白色混凝土大樓聳立著,九層樓高,開出幾處陽台——它成了一個路標,就像傳統村莊裡的鐘塔,從一片低矮破舊的房屋當中拔地而起。
To the north, where the facade meets Milan’s skyline and becomes mostly glass, cantilevering over the street, the block breaks into a zigzag of shifting floor plates, rectangles and trapezoids, the whole building wedged onto a triangular plot.
再到北面,建築立面在此匯入米蘭的天際線,牆面變成玻璃為主,懸挑在街道之上,不同樓層的樓面在平行四邊形和不規則四邊形之間變換,把樓體分割出曲折錯落,整座建築落在一個三角形地塊上。
The south end makes plain how the structure stands up. An ensemble of enormous cables encased inside a giant beam counteracts the thrust of all those heavy, cantilevered concrete decks. Like a sword in a stone, the beam angles from the top of the tower through the red-tiled roof of an adjacent former warehouse, anchoring in the floor below.
南面令豎立的建築結構一目了然。一條碩大的梁裡藏有數根粗大的鋼纜,牽制了那些懸挑、沉重的混凝土樓板產生的推力。這道梁像一把插入石頭的劍,從樓頂傾斜向下,穿過緊挨著的一座老倉庫的紅瓦頂,錨入地面。
在米蘭,從一間鄰近的畫廊望向Prada新建成的九層藝術塔。
在米蘭,從一間鄰近的畫廊望向Prada新建成的九層藝術塔。 Alessandro Grassani for The New York Times
In the Arthurian legend, the wizard Merlin put the sword in the stone. Mr. Koolhaas must be Merlin, I suppose. That makes Miuccia Prada, the Lady of the Lake.
在亞瑟王的傳奇裡,是魔法師梅林(Merlin)把劍放進了石頭。我想這裡的梅林必然是庫哈斯。那麼湖夫人(Lady of the Lake)就是繆西婭·普拉達(Miuccia Prada)了。
The tower completes the arts campus OMA has spent the past decade conceiving for the Prada Foundation. An offshoot of the global fashion conglomerate, dedicated to contemporary art and culture, the foundation commissions new art, presents exhibitions and organizes film festivals and other events. It also oversees the vast art collection Ms. Prada and her husband, Patrizio Bertelli, have put together. For years, it operated in far-flung locales.
OMA用了十年時間為普拉達基金會設計該藝術中心,這座塔樓是藝術中心的收官之作。普拉達基金會是全球性時尚集團普拉達的分支機構,專事當代藝術與文化,基金會委約創作新的藝術作品,舉辦展覽,組織電影節和其他活動。這個機構也負責監管普拉達女士和丈夫帕特里齊奧·貝爾泰利(Patrizio Bertelli)龐大的藝術收藏。多年以來,基金會都在偏遠地點運營。
廣告
In 2008, Mr. Koolhaas and a partner, Christopher van Duijn, were enlisted to reimagine a former, turn-of-the-century distillery Prada owned as the foundation’s permanent home. Walled-in, abutting a weedy stretch of railroad tracks, the distillery was a picturesque assortment of dilapidated stables, a bottling facility, a carriage house, some offices and warehouses.
2008年,庫哈斯與合伙人克里斯多夫·范·丹(Christopher van Duijn)受邀把普拉達擁有的一座20世紀初的酒廠重新設計為基金會的永久總部。圍牆內,毗鄰一條荒草叢生的鐵道,畫面感十足的酒廠包括幾處殘破的馬房、裝瓶車間、馬車庫、辦公室和倉庫。
The architects cleared away some of the old buildings, refurbished others. They built new ones. The tower was the last piece of the puzzle.
建築師拆除了一些老建築,另一些做了翻新。他們也蓋了新建築。塔樓是整個設計的最後一塊拼圖。
Without it, the site first opened to the public in 2015. It featured about 120,000 square feet of new or reconfigured exhibition space; a new cinema; a new two-story Miesian pavilion of wide open gallery spaces, called the Podium, the whole building clad in light, shimmery panels of foamed aluminum, an automotive and medical industry material also used for bomb blast absorption that looks a little like rough stone. There was even a 1950s-style Italian cafe straight out of a Wes Anderson movie.
2015年還沒有塔樓的時候,藝術中心首次對公眾開放。那時已經有了12萬平方英尺(約合1.1萬平方米)的新建或改建的展覽空間;一座新影院;一座新建的密斯風格的兩層展廳,有著開闊的展示空間,名叫「講台」(Podium),「講台」通體覆以啞光的輕質泡沫鋁板,這是汽車與醫療產業常用的一種材料,也用於吸收爆破衝擊波,看上去有點像粗糙的石材。甚至還有一間1950年代義大利風格的咖啡館,直接出自韋斯·安德森(Wes Anderson)的一部電影。
這棟建築是雷姆·庫哈斯和奧瑪為Prada基金會設計的一個發光的畫廊塔。
這棟建築是雷姆·庫哈斯和奧瑪為Prada基金會設計的一個發光的畫廊塔。 Alessandro Grassani for The New York Times
That was because Wes Anderson designed it.
因為它是韋斯·安德森的設計。
Chameleons themselves, Mr. Koolhaas and Ms. Prada made natural confederates. She was the famous communist turned high-fashion mogul whose empire evolved from bags and backpacks constructed out of an industrial nylon lining material. He was a prophet of global cities who declared the countryside his real passion after everyone else jumped on the urbanist bandwagon.
庫哈斯和普拉達女士都很多變,他們的結盟也就自然而然。她是著名的由共產黨員轉型的高端時尚業大亨,她的帝國始自用一種工業尼龍材料做襯裡的手袋和背包。他是全球城市的預言家,在別人都跳進都市化大潮之後宣告鄉間才是他真正的熱情所在。
Her clothes always seemed less about what men desired than what whet her creative appetite. He was once invited to propose an expansion for the Museum of Modern Art and thumbed his nose at the selection committee by suggesting a billboard that said “MoMA Inc.” They were both contrarians and closet optimists.
她設計的服裝似乎總是取決於什麼能激發她的創造慾望,而無關男人的渴望。而他曾受邀為紐約現代藝術博物館(Museum of Modern Art)的擴建做提案,面對評委會大不敬地提議樹一塊「現代藝術博物館有限公司」(MoMA Inc.)的廣告牌。兩個人都是逆反者和背地裡的樂觀主義者。
And they shared a sense of humor. At one time it was rumored that Prada might back the Dutch architect for a seat in the Italian Parliament.
他們倆還有共同的幽默感。一度有謠傳說普拉達要支持這位荷蘭建築師在義大利國會爭取一個席位。
塔樓屋頂的迪廳酒吧,北面是米蘭的天際線。
塔樓屋頂的迪廳酒吧,北面是米蘭的天際線。 Alessandro Grassani for The New York Times
酒吧「盧斯」是由導演韋斯·安德森設計的。就像電影場景一樣,它再現了米蘭咖啡館的氛圍。
酒吧「盧斯」是由導演韋斯·安德森設計的。就像電影場景一樣,它再現了米蘭咖啡館的氛圍。 CreditAlessandro Grassani for The New York Times
卡斯滕·赫勒的藝術裝置作品《顛倒的蘑菇房》。畫廊由石灰華、碎木板和混凝土混合建成。
卡斯滕·赫勒的藝術裝置作品《顛倒的蘑菇房》。畫廊由石灰華、碎木板和混凝土混合建成。 Alessandro Grassani for The New York Times
The foundation became their love child. It is unlike the eye-popping art gallery Frank Gehry designed for the Louis Vuitton Foundation beside the Bois de Boulogne in Paris, with its billowing glass sails, conjuring up flounces of silk and memories of Bilbao. The Prada campus feels, by comparison, world-weary, sneakily luxurious and — especially with its new tower — a mini-city, fragmentary, full of craft and secrets. Cities enshrine history and agitate for change. They’re forever unresolved.
普拉達基金會成了兩個人愛的結晶。它不像弗蘭克·蓋裡(Frank Gehry)在巴黎布洛涅森林邊上為路易·威登基金會(Louis Vuitton Foundation)設計的令人瞠目的藝術中心,那些鼓鼓的玻璃風帆讓人想起絲綢的翻湧,想起畢爾包。相比之下,普拉達基金會的藝術園看破了紅塵,不事張揚地奢華,尤其是有了新的塔樓後,像一座斷片拼接的迷你城市,充滿了心機與祕密。城市珍藏歷史又激蕩於變革。它們永無定論。
This has been Mr. Koolhaas’s mantra. It is reflected in a foundation that’s neither a preservation project nor a tear-down-and-build-new venture. Its mode is bricolage. More is more. Both is better.
這一直是庫哈斯的真言。它反映在這處即非保護項目又不是拆除重建的營造上。它的手法是利用手頭的現成材料進行創作。繁即是多。新舊結合更佳。
廣告
Cities are theaters and shape-shifters, too. I’m vaguely reminded of the old Cinecittà studios outside Rome, where Fellini worked and Mr. Anderson has made films. A stable house in the former distillery now resembles the cabinet rooms in old master museums. A tiny, Alice in Wonderland door opens onto an immense warehouse, 60 feet high and 200 feet long.
城市是劇場,城市也會變身。我隱約想起了羅馬郊區老舊的電影城(Cinecittà studios),費裡尼曾在那裡工作,韋斯·安德森也在那拍過電影。老酒廠裡的一間馬房現在就像古代大師美術館裡的書房。一間小小的、愛麗絲漫遊奇境式的門通向60英尺(約合18米)高、200英尺(約合61米)長的巨大倉庫。
And a building nicknamed the Haunted House is slathered in gold leaf, like an early Renaissance panel painting. (“A very cheap cladding material,” Mr. Koolhaas has insisted, “compared to marble or even paint.”)
綽號「鬼屋」的建築外表貼以金箔,像一幅文藝復興早期的木板油畫。(「這是一種很便宜的外牆材料,」庫哈斯曾堅持說,「比大理石甚至塗料還便宜。」)
“There is no difference between gold and rags,” Michelangelo Pistoletto, the veteran artist, once said. Mr. Pistoletto made his bones in the 1960s as a founder of Arte Povera, the Italian twist on post-Minimalism. Writing in 2001, after Mr. Koolhaas’s Prada shop opened in downtown Manhattan, the critic Herbert Muschamp noted Prada’s philosophical roots in Arte Povera.
藝術家米開朗基羅·皮斯特萊托(Michelangelo Pistoletto)曾說,「黃金與破布並沒有什麼不同。」皮斯特萊托因在1960年代開創了「貧窮藝術」(Arte Povera)而聞名,這是後極簡主義的義大利變體。2001年,庫哈斯設計的位於曼哈頓下城的普拉達門店開業之後,評論家赫伯特·穆尚浦(Herbert Muschamp)提出普拉達的哲學源自貧窮藝術。
Mr. Muschamp recalled how Art Povera consisted of “old bedding and tar-stained rope” displayed “in barren, out-of-the-way locations.”
穆尚浦回顧了「破床單和沾染油污的繩索」在「荒無人煙的偏僻場所」展出,是怎樣構成了貧窮藝術。
Somehow, he added, “you always needed a private jet to get there.”
不知為什麼,他加了一句:「你總是要搭乘私人飛機才能抵達。」
Up to a point, that describes the foundation, with its fetishized lowdown materials like chipboard and orange construction fencing and slightly out-of-the-way location, south of the city’s center.
某種程度上,這個描述是貼切的,門店設計高調使用了刨花板、橙色的工地圍欄等廉價材料,店面也位於市中心以南略微偏僻的地段。
塔樓的餐廳和酒吧,配有四季酒店和埃羅·薩雷南設計的傢具,以及各種委託製作的藝術品。
塔樓的餐廳和酒吧,配有四季酒店和埃羅·薩雷南設計的傢具,以及各種委託製作的藝術品。 Alessandro Grassani for The New York Times
達米恩·赫斯特的藝術裝置《一種視角》。
達米恩·赫斯特的藝術裝置《一種視角》。 2018 Damien Hirst Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; Alessandro Grassani for The New York Times
欣賞赫斯特的作品《為每一個看著你的人流淚》。
欣賞赫斯特的作品《為每一個看著你的人流淚》。 2018 Damien Hirst Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; Alessandro Grassani for The New York Times
Arte Povera isn’t the only ghost of midcentury modernism inhabiting the project — there’s the twee cafe, with its Formica furniture and veneered wood paneling; the new tower restaurant, with its furniture bought at auction from New York’s Four Seasons; the cinema, with chairs imported from ’70s-era Milanese movie houses; and the sun-baked, deeply shadowed squares, conjuring up de Chirico.
遊盪在這裡的上世紀中期的現代主義鬼魂還不只是貧窮藝術——藝術中心有間花哨的咖啡館,裡邊是貼面傢具和木紋牆板;新塔樓裡的餐廳,傢具是從紐約四季飯店歇業前的拍賣上買來的;電影院裡的座椅來自幾家1970年代的米蘭影院;還有陽光燦爛時廣場上的陰影,讓人想起基裡科(Giorgio de Chirico)的畫。
At the same time, there are the custom sheets of very modern translucent polycarbonate and aluminum handrails milled like Ferraris. There are the oak wood box-on-end pavers and the repurposed metal prison grates painted lime green, which serve as screens in the coat checks and bathroom stalls.
同時這裡又使用了非常現代的定製透明聚碳酸酯板,鋁合金扶手打磨得像法拉利汽車一樣精細。還有橡木鋪路板和漆成嫩綠色的監獄金屬柵欄改作他用,成了存衣處的屏風和廁所裡的隔間。
廣告
Some visitors have complained the layout doesn’t tell you where to go. You find your way around it. Like in a city. I think that is a virtue.
有些訪客抱怨說內部布局不告訴你該往哪裡走。你得自己去試探。就像在一座城市裡。我認為這是個優點。
But until now the project was missing its cornerstone where the 200-foot-high, 22,000-square-foot tower, or Torre, was meant to rise. Delays in construction stretched three years. They ended up allowing time to refine the design.
不過整個項目一直在等最重要的這座高200英尺(約合60米)高、面積2.2萬平方英尺(約合2044平方米)的塔樓,直到現在。建設工期拖延了三年。這也給改進設計留出了時間。
從塔樓俯瞰整個園區,這是一座新舊建築混合的小城市。
從塔樓俯瞰整個園區,這是一座新舊建築混合的小城市。 Alessandro Grassani for The New York Times
麥可·海澤的作品,中間是皮諾·帕斯卡利的《衝突》,1967 / 2011。
麥可·海澤的作品,中間是皮諾·帕斯卡利的《衝突》,1967 / 2011。 Alessandro Grassani for The New York Times
The tower’s six, stacked gallery floors were created as full-time showcases for Prada’s private art collection. They’re reached through a small, open-air lobby like a disco ball, with flashing screens and a dizzying cutout in the ceiling to reveal the building core’s scissored stairs. One flight up, mirrored bathrooms, industrial sinks and a patterned floor summon to mind Pierre Chareau and Superstudio.
塔樓裡上下六層樓的展廳專門用來陳列普拉達的私人藝術收藏。進入展廳要通過一個小型的開放式前廳,像迪斯科舞廳的反光球,有許多閃爍的螢幕,天花板上有令人暈眩的開口,透過它能看到建築核心筒裡交錯的樓梯。沿樓梯向上一層,鑲鏡面的洗手間、工業水槽和拼花地板讓你想起皮埃爾·夏洛(Pierre Chareau)和Superstudio(註:1960年代的義大利激進建築小組)。
The galleries above are one to a floor, no two rooms alike, each taller than the last, their layouts shifting with the floor plates, the lowest gallery, 9 feet high; the topmost, 26 feet high.
樓上每一層就是一個展廳,每個展廳都截然不同,每個都比上一個更高,布局也隨著樓面形狀而變化;最低層的展廳挑高9英尺(約合2.7米),最上層的是26英尺(約合7.9米)。
The middle-floor galleries end up feeling the nicest, proportion-wise. But the whole building is one narrative. As Federico Pompignoli, OMA’s project manager, has said, the tower is “an attempt at the white cube defying its own boringness.”
從空間比例來說,中間層的展廳感覺最舒服。但整座樓是一個整體表述。就像OMA的項目經理費德里克·龐皮尼奧裡(Federico Pompignoli)說過的,塔樓是「嘗試在一個白方塊上抗拒它自身的無趣」。
Much credit here goes to him. He oversaw every inch of construction and it shows. Elevator cabs clad in backlit slabs of rose and green onyx suggest medieval reliquaries. I am told blacksmiths from a tiny shop outside Milan hand-tooled the restaurant’s exquisite bar, sliding doors and custom-embossed the anodized aluminum panels on the terraces that look like expensive Lego pieces.
對於塔樓,他功不可沒。他監督了它每一寸的建造與外觀。電梯轎廂內鋪以有背光的玫瑰色及綠色縞瑪瑙,使人聯想到中世紀的聖物盒。我聽說來自米蘭城外一家小鋪子的鐵匠手工打造了餐廳裡精緻的吧台、滑動門和露台上定製花紋的陽極氧化鋁板,它們看上去就像昂貴的樂高積木。
左:Prada塔樓一條大梁聳入隔壁大樓一個畫廊的屋頂。
左:Prada塔樓一條大梁聳入隔壁大樓一個畫廊的屋頂。 Alessandro Grassani for The New York Times
I kept running my hands over the tower’s concrete walls. Infused with Carrara marble and poured by construction workers who wore white gloves, they feel smooth as silk.
我不停用雙手撫摸塔樓的混凝土牆面。混凝土注入卡拉拉(Carrara)產的大理石模板,由戴著白手套的建築工人澆築,摸上去像絲一樣滑。
The big rectangular and wedge-shaped galleries, windows alternating between panoramas of the city and narrow views over the campus, accommodate best the large-scale works in the inaugural show, “Atlas.” It features Jeff Koons, Mona Hatoum, Michael Heizer and others. Check out the restaurant if you go. Works by Carsten Höller and Lucio Fontana are on permanent display.
在巨大的長方形和楔形展廳,窗外風景在城市全景與院內的狹窄視野間交替,展廳極好地容納了揭幕展《阿特拉斯》(Atlas)中的大尺寸作品。展覽展出了傑夫·昆斯(Jeff Koons)、莫娜·哈透姆(Mona Hatoum、麥可·海澤(Michael Heizer)等藝術家的作品。你去的話一定要到餐廳看看。卡斯滕·霍勒(Carsten Höller)和盧齊歐·封塔納(Lucio Fontana)的一些作品在那裡永久陳列。
廣告
From “Atlas,” I made my way through the loan exhibition about Fascist art that has taken over the pavilion and stables, watching a few of the old news clips of cheering mobs and Benito Mussolini in the cinema.
從《阿特拉斯》展出來,我又去了涼亭和馬房裡關於法西斯藝術的借展,在電影院看了幾段老的新聞短片,裡面有歡呼的人群和貝尼托·墨索裡尼(Benito Mussolini)。
Then I wandered into Mr. Anderson’s cafe and ordered what may be the most delicious sandwich I have eaten in my entire life.
然後我溜達進韋斯·安德森的咖啡館,點了三明治,這可能是我這輩子吃過的最好吃的三明治。
塔樓裡的觀光電梯,這裡可以俯瞰米蘭郊區亂糟糟的街區。
塔樓裡的觀光電梯,這裡可以俯瞰米蘭郊區亂糟糟的街區。 Alessandro Grassani for The New York Times
Private museums are mostly vanity projects. Few invent social spaces. It may be the ultimate tribute to Mr. Koolhaas and OMA to say that the Prada campus works. The plazas are poetic. The galleries are practical and varied.
私立美術館大多是浮華的項目。很少創造社交空間。在這點上普拉達基金會藝術中心是成功的,這樣說可能是對庫哈斯和OMA的最大肯定。廣場很有詩意。展廳實用而形態多樣。
Ms. Prada should be pleased and maybe a little worried. It’s up to the foundation to program these spaces for generations to come.
普拉達女士應該很高興,或許也有一點擔心。這些空間現在要靠基金會為將來的幾代人策劃內容了。
Architecturally speaking, there’s a lot to live up to.
從建築上講,有很多不可辜負之處。