MARAWI, Philippines — Approaching her house for the first time since militants took over the neighborhood, evidence of a disaster unfolded around Haydee Dimalawang: “ISIS” spray-painted on the door of the family’s completely stripped car, walls gouged by bullets, a kitchen ripped in half by a mortar shell.

菲律宾马拉维——自从武装分子占领海迪·迪玛拉旺(Haydee Dimalawang)家所在的街区后,这是她第一次走近自己的房子,眼前一幅灾难过后的景象:她家已被拆毁的汽车的门上喷着ISIS字样,墙壁千疮百孔,厨房被迫击炮炸掉了一半。

She felt lucky — relatively.

她感到幸运——相对而言。

At least her house, in a central neighborhood of Marawi, was still standing. Her neighbor across the street, Alpata Utto, was left with an empty plot. His house had burned down early in the fighting, and weeds had sprouted from the ashes.

至少,她家位于马拉维市中心的这处房子依然矗立着。住马路对面的艾尔帕塔·乌托(Alpata Utto)家就只剩下了一片空地。战斗开始后不久,他的房子就被烧毁了,杂草已经从灰烬中长了出来。

Islamic State loyalists seized Marawi, a predominantly Muslim city of more than 200,000 people on the Philippine island of Mindanao, more than 10 months ago, leading to months of military siege and devastating American airstrikes.

十个多月前,效忠伊斯兰国(Islamic State)的人占领了马拉维,引发数月的军事围攻以及毁灭性的美国空袭。马拉维是菲律宾棉兰老岛上的一个以穆斯林为主的城市,拥有20多万人口。

The residents are finally being allowed to return, but only for a day or two per family to salvage what they can and then leave again.

居民们最终被允许返回家园,但每户人家只能呆上一两天,尽量挽回财物,然后再次离开。

民众终于获准暂时返回马拉维。
民众终于获准暂时返回马拉维。 Jes Aznar for The New York Times

What happens next will depend on how and when the city is rebuilt. And in a central example of how the political wind is shifting in the Philippines, the destruction enabled in part by American military assistance will be repaired by a Chinese-led consortium, officials say.

接下来会发生什么将取决于这座城市何时以及如何重建。官员们表示,部分因美国的军事援助而造成的破坏将由一个中国牵头的财团修复,这是菲律宾的政治风向正在发生转变的一个典型例子。

On Tuesday, President Rodrigo Duterte visited China to discuss the project, worth an estimated $1.5 billion, with President Xi Jinping, among other issues, officials said.

官员们表示,周二,菲律宾总统罗德里戈·杜特地(Rodrigo Duterte)访问了中国,与中国国家主席习近平讨论了这个预估价值15亿美元的项目以及其他事宜。

周日,民众查看受损情况。重建计划进展缓慢。
周日,民众查看受损情况。重建计划进展缓慢。 Jes Aznar for The New York Times

As residents’ visits to Marawi began, three New York Times journalists were given exclusive access both to those neighborhoods and to some parts of the city still cut off to civilians and littered with ordnance and rubble.

居民们开始返回马拉维后,《纽约时报》的三名记者获许进入到这些社区,以及部分依然禁止平民进入的布满炮弹和瓦砾的地区。

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Since Mr. Duterte declared victory over the Islamic State loyalists in October, residents have been kept out. For the past five months, they have been scattered across the country. Some moved in with relatives, but many were stuck in open-air, government-sponsored camps for the displaced.

自从去年10月杜特地宣布击败伊斯兰国的效忠者以来,居民们一直被禁止返回家园。在过去的五个月里,他们分散在菲律宾各地。有些人搬去和亲戚一起住,但许多人被困在政府为流离失所者设立的露天营地里。

After residents protested the delayed return to their city, the military scheduled the short-term visits.

在居民们抗议不能及时返回自己的城市后,军方安排了这次短期逗留。

菲律宾总统罗德里戈·杜特地上周宣布,价值大约15亿美元的马拉维重建合同中,大部分工程将面向一批中国公司招标。
菲律宾总统罗德里戈·杜特地上周宣布,价值大约15亿美元的马拉维重建合同中,大部分工程将面向一批中国公司招标。 Jes Aznar for The New York Times

Last year, President Duterte admitted that the Philippine security forces had been caught off guard by the militants’ assault on Marawi, and he grudgingly asked for help from the country’s traditional military allies, the United States and Australia.

去年,杜特地总统承认,武装分子对马拉维的攻击令菲律宾的安全部队措手不及,他不得已向菲律宾传统的军事盟友美国和澳大利亚求助。

What followed were five months of the most intense clashes the military had faced, with the militants killing hundreds, taking dozens of people hostage and beheading victims on video. In total, the government estimates that some 1,200 people were killed.

接下来的五个月是菲律宾军方面临的最激烈的冲突,武装分子杀害了数百人,劫持了数十名人质,并在视频中将受害者斩首。据政府估计,共有约1200人被杀。

The insurgent leader Isnilon Hapilon was killed in October, near the end of the siege. But about 200 fighters had managed to escape, and sporadic clashes continued weeks later.

去年10月,在围攻接近尾声时,叛军领袖伊斯尼隆·哈皮隆(Isnilon Hapilon)被击毙。不过,约有200名士兵逃脱,在之后数周,零星的冲突持续发生

Long known as the “Islamic capital” of the Philippines, Marawi has a history of marginalization by the government of the predominantly Catholic country. Even before the siege began, residents would stay away from banks in favor of keeping their money in vaults and doing business among themselves. Many refused to register their property, preferring to stay off government books.

马拉维长期以来被称为菲律宾的“伊斯兰之都”,在这个以天主教为主的国家,它过去一直被政府边缘化。甚至在围攻开始前,居民们都避开银行,把钱藏在保险库里,生意限于彼此之间。许多人拒绝登记自己的财产,倾向于远离政府的账簿。

在城里各处,居民们想尽办法收集他们可以挽回的东西:可以拿去市场上出售的废金属,旧的家庭相册,被烧掉一半的高中文凭。
在城里各处,居民们想尽办法收集他们可以挽回的东西:可以拿去市场上出售的废金属,旧的家庭相册,被烧掉一半的高中文凭。 Jes Aznar for The New York Times
马拉维长期以来被称为菲律宾的“伊斯兰之都”,在这个以天主教为主的国家,它过去一直被政府边缘化。
马拉维长期以来被称为菲律宾的“伊斯兰之都”,在这个以天主教为主的国家,它过去一直被政府边缘化。 Jes Aznar for The New York Times

As people began returning this week, some said they believed that the Philippine military, not the Islamist militants, had looted their homes. That has only added to the sense of isolation.

本周,居民开始返回家园时,有些居民表示,他们认为是菲律宾军方洗劫了他们的家园,而非伊斯兰武装分子。这更是增加了孤立感。

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“Our practice was staying together and closely guarding each other,” said Saimra Gutoc, a community organizer from Marawi. “Now, if you’re a Muslim Filipino, you’re going to be suspected of being a part of this.”

“过去,我们的做法是团结在一起,密切地互相保护,”马拉维的社区组织者赛姆拉·古托克(Saimra Gutoc)说,“现在,如果你是菲律宾的穆斯林,你就会被怀疑参与了叛乱。”

Across the city, the residents tried to gather up whatever belongings they could: scrap metal to sell in the market, old family photo albums, half-burned high school diplomas.

在城市各处,居民们想尽办法收集他们可以挽回的东西:可以拿去市场上出售的废金属、旧的家庭相册、烧掉一半的高中文凭。

背井离乡的马拉维居民在一处临时房屋里。
背井离乡的马拉维居民在一处临时房屋里。 Jes Aznar for The New York Times
政府的“遗体寻找小组”仍在从马拉维被炸毁的地区找回遗体。
政府的“遗体寻找小组”仍在从马拉维被炸毁的地区找回遗体。 Jes Aznar for The New York Times

In the center of the city, Dr. Bedoria Macabalang, 52, was inspecting what remained of the family-owned, 50-bed Salaam Hospital, which was one of the city’s most modern health facilities before the siege began. Militants had taken over the hospital and used it as an infirmary for their wounded. On the walls were pro-Islamic State graffiti.

在市中心,52岁的贝多里娅·马卡巴郎(Bedoria Macabalang)医生正在查看萨拉姆医院(Salaam Hospital)的残垣断壁。在围攻开始前,这家设有50张床位的家族医院是马拉维最现代的医疗设施之一。武装分子接管了医院,并将其作为医治伤员的地方。墙上画着支持伊斯兰国的涂鸦。

“I have had to also let go of the hospital’s 80-plus staff. No one knows what’s going to happen to us,” Dr. Macabalang said. “I can’t cry anymore because all the tears have dried up.”

“我不得不打发走医院的80多名员工。谁都不知道我们身上会发生什么事。马卡巴郎说。“我再也哭不出来了,眼泪已经流干了。”

Plans to rebuild the city have been coming together slowly. Mr. Duterte announced last week that most of the contract will be bid out to a group of Chinese companies. But it could be months before the actual work can start.

重建计划进展缓慢。杜特地上周宣布,合同中的大部分工程将面向一批中国公司招标。但可能要数月后才能实际动工。

贝多里娅·马卡巴郎在检查设有50张床位的萨拉姆医院的残垣断壁。
贝多里娅·马卡巴郎在检查设有50张床位的萨拉姆医院的残垣断壁。 Jes Aznar for The New York Times

On Tuesday, Mr. Duterte seemed to hint at that relationship — and others — as he addressed a business conference on the Chinese island of Hainan, with Mr. Xi in attendance.

周二,杜特地在中国海南岛的一场商业会议上发表讲话时,似乎暗示了这种关系和另外一些东西。习近平出席了该会议。

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“As sovereign equals, the Philippines and China are partners in the building of much-needed infrastructure,” Mr. Duterte said, according to a government transcript. “We are building bridges of greater understanding between our peoples.”

“作为两个平等的主权国家,菲律宾和中国在修建急需的基础设施上是合作伙伴,”政府的文字记录显示杜特地如是说。“我们正在搭建增强两国人民之间的了解的桥梁。”

Rommel Banlaoi, a political and security analyst, said Marawi’s future would be a critical indicator of the Philippines’ relationship with China. “It is not only a case of counterterror,” he said. “It’s a test for Duterte’s foreign policy.”

政治和安全分析人士罗梅尔·班乐义(Rommel Banlaoi)表示,马拉维的未来将是菲律宾与中国关系的重要指向标。“这不仅仅是反恐的问题,”他说。“这是对杜特地外交政策的考验。”

伊利甘市,主麻日聚礼上背井离乡的马拉维民众。
伊利甘市,主麻日聚礼上背井离乡的马拉维民众。 Jes Aznar for The New York Times

Over the past year, the Duterte administration has been edging toward closer ties with Beijing. Though the two countries have a territorial dispute over islands in the South China Sea, the prospect of becoming part of China’s Belt and Road infrastructure initiative — which has provided highways, bridges and tunnels to neighboring countries like Thailand, Laos and Cambodia — appears to be moving the Philippines further out of the United States’ orbit.

过去一年里,杜特地政府慢慢向北京靠拢。尽管两国围绕南海多座岛屿存在领土争端,但有望加入中国的“一带一路”基础设施计划这一点,似乎正在促使菲律宾进一步脱离美国的势力范围。该计划为中国周边的国家,如泰国、老挝和柬埔寨提供了公路、桥梁和隧道。

“The Philippine relationship with the U.S. has already changed,” Mr. Banlaoi said. “Duterte doesn’t want the U.S. to lay on the terms anymore.”

“菲律宾与美国的关系发生了改变,”班乐义说。“杜特地不想再让美国来制定条件。”

With the level of destruction so high, Marawi will probably need to be completely razed and rebuilt. But residents are holding on to hope that they will be able to do the work.

在破坏程度如此严重的情况下,马拉维可能需要彻底夷平重建。但民众仍抱有希望,认为他们自己有能力完成这件事。

“We don’t want the Chinese to come in and be paid to destroy our homes,” Ms. Dimalawang said. “This is our city, and we can rebuild it ourselves.”

“我们不想让中国人来,出钱让他们毁坏我们的家园,”迪马拉旺说。“这是我们的城市,我们自己有能力重建。”

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In January, the government made moves to take control of the reconstruction away from the residents. Mr. Duterte released a presidential proclamation classifying much of Marawi’s present area as a military reservation, offering to repay residents for whatever areas are claimed. So far, no payments have been discussed.

1月,政府采取行动,从民众手中夺去了对重建的控制权。杜特地发表总统声明,将马维目前的很多地区列为军事保留用地,提出补偿土地被征用的民众。迄今为止,还没有讨论过补偿款项。

“I will do what is best for you, so do not hurry me up,” Mr. Duterte said at a news conference this week. “Can you rebuild it with how many billions? Just stay put.”

“我会做对你们最有利的事情,所以不要催我,”杜特地本周在一场新闻发布会上说。“你们重建有多少钱?就好好呆着吧。”

There is certainly danger in any large-scale return right now. Around Marawi, volunteers for the Swiss Foundation for Mine Action distributed leaflets to returning evacuees warning them of unexploded ordnance. Posters showed different types of bombs.

目前,任何大规模的回迁无疑都存在危险。瑞士地雷行动基金会(Swiss Foundation for Mine Action)的志愿者在马拉维到处向返回的撤离人员散发传单,警告他们注意未爆弹的炮弹。海报上展示了不同类型的炸弹。

One soldier walked past carrying an empty shell of a rocket-propelled grenade, while spent shells of World War II-era ammunition still littered the ground.

一名士兵从旁边走过,手里拿着一枚火箭推进榴弹的空壳。“二战”时期的弹药弹壳依然散落在地上。

A “cadaver recovery team” from the health department continues to retrieve remains from the bombed-out areas. When the Times journalists visited, Dr. Khadafi Mapandi’s recovery team had found 12 sets of skeletal remains, and expected to find more.

来自卫生部门的一个“遗体寻找小组”仍在从被炸毁的地区带回遗体。时报记者去采访时,卡达菲·马潘迪(Khadafi Mapandi)率领的遗体寻找小组已经找到了12具骸骨,并且预计还会找到更多。