They broke into cheers every time he referred to numbers or statistics. They chanted “PowerPoint! PowerPoint!” when he renewed a pledge to use the program to deliver the State of the Union.
每当他提到数字或统计数据时,人群就爆发出一片欢呼声。当他再次承诺将用微软的演示软件发表国情咨文讲演时,他们高呼“PowerPoint!PowerPoint!”。
And when the 2,500 rain-soaked supporters of Andrew Yang realized he was about to drop his biggest applause line, they screamed the words to help him finish his New York rally with a bang.
当2500名被雨淋透的杨安泽(Andrew Yang)的支持者意识到,他就要说出他最吸引掌声的那句话时,他们一起大声将那句话喊出,帮他在热烈的掌声中结束他在纽约的集会。
“The opposite of Donald Trump,” Mr. Yang yelled, pausing to let his fans join in, “is an Asian man who likes math!”
“与唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)正相反的,”杨安泽喊道,他停下来,等着粉丝们的加入,“是一个喜欢数学的亚裔男子。”
Though the scene at Washington Square Park last week might have seemed unusual to the uninitiated, it was emblematic of Mr. Yang’s long-shot campaign for the Democratic nomination for president. As the 44-year-old former tech executive has traveled across the country, running what he has called the “nerdiest presidential campaign in history,” he has unabashedly embraced his Taiwanese American background, as well as some of the stereotypes commonly associated with Asian-Americans.
虽然对不了解情况的人来说,上周在华盛顿广场公园发生的这一幕可能有些不同寻常,但它是杨安泽争取民主党总统候选人的竞选活动特有的一幕(不过,提名希望不大)。这位44岁的前科技公司高管在美国各地进行他所谓“史上最书呆子气的总统竞选”,毫不掩饰地拥抱自己的台湾裔美国人背景,以及一些通常与亚裔美国人有关的刻板印象。
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“It’s heartwarming when people are excited to see me because they feel like I represent their community,” Mr. Yang said earlier this month in an interview at a bakery in Concord, N.H. “And I will admit that there are many Asian-Americans who are looking at me and my candidacy and want to make sure I reflect positively on the community, so I’m very aware.”
“人们看到我时很兴奋,因为觉得我代表他们的社区,这令人感到幸福愉快,”杨安泽本月早些时候在新罕布什尔州康科德的一家面包店接受采访时说。“我承认,有很多亚裔美国人正在观察我和我的竞选,他们想看到我正面地反映这个社区,所以我非常清楚这点。”
For the first time, there are three Asian-American and Pacific Islanders seeking a major party’s nomination for president: Mr. Yang, Senator Kamala Harris of California and Representative Tulsi Gabbard of Hawaii. As groundbreaking as that is, Mr. Yang in particular has embraced the largely untested strategy of using his Asian ethnicity and identity to appeal to voters nationwide.
这是首次出现三位亚裔美国人和太平洋岛民寻求一个主要政党的总统候选人提名:杨安泽、加利福尼亚州参议员卡玛拉·哈里斯(Kamala Harris),以及夏威夷州众议员图尔西·加巴德(Tulsi Gabbard)。虽然这已经具有开创性,但杨安泽尤为特别,他欣然接受了一个基本上未经过检验的策略,那就是用自己的亚裔族群认同来引起全国选民注意。
杨安泽说自己“非常了解模范少数族裔的神话”,他只是试图“对自己真实”。他的竞选活动会销售印有“MATH”(数学)字样的商品。
杨安泽说自己“非常了解模范少数族裔的神话”,他只是试图“对自己真实”。他的竞选活动会销售印有“MATH”(数学)字样的商品。 Christopher Lee for The New York Times
Mr. Yang said he was proud of his background and that he hoped his blunt acknowledgment of his race — and his bold political ideas — would help him stand out, particularly in the early stages of a primary contest where the nearly two dozen Democratic hopefuls can blur together for many voters.
杨安泽说,他对自己的背景感到自豪,他希望毫不隐讳地承认自己的种族——加上大胆的政治想法——将有助于他脱颖而出,特别是在初选的早期阶段。有将近20多名民主党候选人参加初选,这可能会让许多选民分不清谁是谁。
“When people hear from me, they say, ‘You don’t sound like any other politician,’” he said. “In a very crowded field, the person who sounds different is going to keep getting stronger and stronger.”
“人们听我讲话时,他们会说,‘你听起来不像其他的政客。’”他说。“在有众多候选人的选举中,听起来与众不同的人会变得越来越强大。”
More than a year after he kicked off his bid for the presidency from a position of almost total obscurity, Mr. Yang’s approach to campaigning and pledge to provide a universal basic income to every American have netted him more than 100,000 donors and helped him qualify for the first Democratic debate. Though he remains something of a fringe candidate, he routinely draws thousands of people to his big-city rallies, and he has garnered support from a range of voters, including parts of the Democratic-leaning Asian-American community.
开始竞选总统时,几乎无人知晓,一年多后,杨安泽的竞选方式,以及为每个美国人提供普遍基本收入的承诺,已经让他拥有10万名以上的捐款者,帮助他获得了参加民主党第一轮辩论的资格。尽管他在某种程度上仍是一个边缘候选人,但他在大城市举行的集会经常吸引到成千上万的人参加。他得到了各种各样选民的支持,包括倾向于民主党的亚裔美国人社区中的部分选民
Scholars and community leaders who study Asian-American history say Mr. Yang’s emergence onto the national political scene is no accident. After decades of immigrant exclusion, second-generation Asian-Americans have come of age and grown up steeped in American politics. The 2018 midterms saw a record number of Asian-Americans run for Congress at a time when the racial group continues to expand at a faster rate than any other in the United States.
研究亚裔美国人历史的学者和社区领袖说,杨安泽在全国政治舞台上的出现并非偶然。在经历了数十年的移民排斥之后,第二代亚裔美国人已经在美国政治的熏陶下成长起来。在2018年的中期选举中,竞选国会议员的亚裔美国人人数创下了历史新高,而与此同时,这个族裔继续以高于美国任何其他族裔的速度增长
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“This is absolutely a moment of importance,” John C. Yang, the president of the national arm of the nonprofit advocacy organization Asian Americans Advancing Justice, said of the three presidential candidates. “It says something about how far we have come.”
“这绝对是一个重要的时刻,”非营利的倡导组织亚裔美国人正义促进会(Asian Americans Advancing Justice)的全国机构主管约翰·C·杨(John C. Yang)在谈到这三位总统候选人时说。“这说明了我们已经取得的进步。”
More than four decades later, the candidates in the 2020 field have addressed their background in varying ways.
40多年后的今天,这三位参加2020年总统大选的候选人以不同的方式对待自己的背景。
Ms. Harris, whose mother was Tamil Indian and whose father is Jamaican, attended Howard University, one of the most prominent historically black schools, and was a member of Alpha Kappa Alpha, the oldest black sorority. She has bristled at the suggestion that she has downplayed her Indian heritage, pointing to her memoir, in which she writes about the influence her mother and grandparents had on her. But Ms. Harris has also sometimes deflected questions about her identity, choosing to describe herself simply as “a proud American.”
哈里斯的母亲是泰米尔族印度人,父亲是牙买加人。她上的是霍华德大学(Howard University),这是历史上最著名的黑人学校之一,她也是最古老的黑人女生联谊会Alpha Kappa Alpha的成员。她对人们暗示她淡化了自己印度血统的说法不满,指出她在回忆录中提到了母亲和外祖父母对她的影响。但哈里斯有时也会回避有关自己族裔认同的问题,选择简单地把自己描述为“一名自豪的美国人”
新罕布什尔州汉诺威达特茅斯学院的大四学生、21岁的莉莉·靳在这个月的早些时候听了杨安泽在那里的演讲。她说,她觉得人们对杨安泽策略的担忧是有道理的,但她相信他这是在“直面自己的身份”。
新罕布什尔州汉诺威达特茅斯学院的大四学生、21岁的莉莉·靳在这个月的早些时候听了杨安泽在那里的演讲。她说,她觉得人们对杨安泽策略的担忧是有道理的,但她相信他这是在“直面自己的身份”。 Elizabeth Frantz for The New York Times
Ms. Gabbard, the first American Samoan and first Hindu elected to Congress, has formed deep ties with Indian Americans over the course of her career. As recently as January, she wrote an Op-Ed for Religion News Service decrying the “religious bigotry” and “anti-Hindu sentiment” she said was directed at her after she announced her run for president. But on the trail, Ms. Gabbard, who served two combat tours in the Middle East, has chosen to focus mostly on her foreign policy credentials.
加巴德是当选为国会议员的首位萨摩亚裔美国人和首位印度教教徒。在她的职业生涯中,她与印度裔美国人建立了深厚的关系。就在今年1月,她还为宗教新闻社(Religion News Service)写了一篇专栏文章,谴责“宗教偏执”和“反印度教情绪”,她说,这种情绪是在她宣布参加竞选总统后针对自己而发的。但在竞选活动中,曾两次在中东战场服役的加巴德选择了把主要注意力集中在自己的外交政策资历上。
Mr. Yang focuses on policy as well, issuing dire warnings about job losses and arguing that $12,000 a year will help blunt the impact of automation. But on a recent swing through New Hampshire, he told those who came to see him that it was O.K. if all they knew about him was that there was “an Asian man running for president who wants to give everyone $1,000 a month.”
杨安泽也关注政策,他对失业发出了可怕的警告,并提出理由说,每人每年1.2万美元的失业补贴将有助于减轻自动化带来的影响。但最近在新罕布什尔州的一次活动中,他对那些前来听他讲话的人说,如果他们只知道“有个正在竞选总统的亚裔,他想给每人每月发1000美元”,那也没关系。
“My Asian-ness is kind of obvious in a way that might not be true of Kamala or even Tulsi,” Mr. Yang said in Concord. “That’s not a choice. It’s just a fairly evident reality.”
“我的亚洲特点在一些方面显而易见,但对卡玛拉甚至图尔西可能不是这样,”杨安泽在康科德说。“这不是一个选择。这是一个显而易见的事实。”
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The way Mr. Yang has chosen to lean into stereotypes about Asian-Americans, though, has led to tension among members of the community.
不过,杨安泽选择向亚裔美国人的刻板印象靠拢的方式,已在该社区成员中引发了紧张关系。
John C. Yang treaded carefully when asked about the candidate’s embrace of those tropes, calling it “a very complex, difficult area.”
当被问及杨安泽接受这些老生常谈的东西时,约翰·C·杨的回答小心翼翼,他说,这是一个“非常复杂、非常困难的方面”。
“We want to celebrate our successes,” he said, “but not feed into the model minority stereotype.”
“我们要庆祝我们的成功,”他说,“但不要助长模范少数族裔的刻板印象。”
That stereotype, which overgeneralizes Asians as diligent and high-achieving, traces back to a broader culture of anti-black racism in America that “helped to justify a kind of racial order,” said Ellen Wu, an associate history professor at Indiana University. In more contemporary times, she said, the stereotype is problematic because it flattens a massive group of people into a monolith.
这种刻板印象将亚洲人过于笼统地概括为勤奋、成就斐然,可以追溯到美国更广泛的反黑人种族主义文化,并“帮助证明某种种族次序是合理的”,印第安纳大学(Indiana University)历史系副教授艾伦·吴(Ellen Wu)说。她表示,在更现代的时期,这种刻板印象是有问题的,因为它把一个巨大的群体扁平单一化了。
“People who are math nerds — you can be proud of that,” Ms. Wu said. “But in some ways, leaning in on those kinds of caricatures of Asian-Americans, we run the risk of reproducing the narrow characterizations that Asian-Americans encounter in mainstream culture.”
“那些数学书呆子——你可以为此感到自豪,”吴女士说。“但从某种程度上说,向这种漫画式的亚裔美国人靠拢的话,我们就冒下了复制亚裔美国人在主流文化中遇到的狭隘刻画的风险。”
杨安泽获得了参加民主党第一轮辩论的资格,尽管在某种程度上他仍是一个边缘候选人。
杨安泽获得了参加民主党第一轮辩论的资格,尽管在某种程度上他仍是一个边缘候选人。 Christopher Lee for The New York Times
For his part, Mr. Yang said he was “very aware of the model minority myth” and that he was simply trying to be “true to myself.”
就杨安泽而言,他说自己“非常了解模范少数族裔的神话”,他只是试图“对自己真实”。
“It would be unfortunate if you say, ‘I’m an Asian guy who likes math, thus, all Asian guys like math,’” he said. “Hopefully, people will see our community is very diverse.”
“如果你说,‘因为我是一个喜欢数学的亚洲男子,因此,所有亚洲男子都喜欢数学,’那就太不幸了,”他说。“希望人们能看到我们的社区非常多元化。”
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Karthick Ramakrishnan, a professor of political science at the University of California, Riverside, who went to college with Mr. Yang, said he believed the candidate was drawing on his background in part because he was “comfortable in his own skin.”
加州大学河滨分校(University of California, Riverside)政治学教授卡尔希克·拉马克里什南(Karthick Ramakrishnan)曾和杨安泽是大学同学。拉马克里什南说,杨安泽利用自己的背景部分原因是他“对自己和自己的能力充满信心”。
“He is trying to play up to these positive stereotypes of being capable and good with numbers, but he also has this very extroverted quality about him,” Mr. Ramakrishnan said. “He’s trying to be memorable.”
“他试图迎合人们对他有能力、玩得转数字的正面刻板印象,但他也有非常外向的性格,”拉马克里什南说。“他是想让人们记住他。”
Lily Jin, a 21-year-old senior at Dartmouth College in Hanover, N.H., who went to see Mr. Yang speak there earlier this month, said she’s well aware of the stereotypes Asian-Americans encounter and thinks the concerns around Mr. Yang’s strategy are valid.
新罕布什尔州汉诺威达特茅斯学院(Dartmouth College)的大四学生、21岁的莉莉·靳(Lily Jin)在这个月的早些时候听了杨安泽在那里的演讲。她说,她很清楚亚裔美国人所遭遇的刻板印象,她觉得,人们对杨安泽策略的担忧是有道理的。
But to Ms. Jin, Mr. Yang is “addressing his identity head-on,” and also breaking the mold, by helping show young Asian-Americans that they can pursue something other than what she called the “preplanned paths” of medical or law school.
但在靳女士看来,杨安泽是在“直面自己的身份”,同时也打破了一种模式,因为他帮助向年轻的亚裔美国人展示出,除了上医学院或法学院这种她称之为“预先规划好的道路”,他们可以追求其他的东西。
“Growing up in a household that never encouraged me to go into politics or really even vote, an important piece of this is encouraging more Asian-Americans to get involved,” she said.
“在一个从来没有鼓励过我从政,甚至不鼓励投票的家庭中长大,这件事的很重要的一部分是鼓励更多亚裔美国人参与进来,”她说。
杨安泽在大城市举行的竞选集会经常能吸引到成千上万的人,比如上周在曼哈顿的华盛顿广场公园。
杨安泽在大城市举行的竞选集会经常能吸引到成千上万的人,比如上周在曼哈顿的华盛顿广场公园。 Christopher Lee for The New York Times
Interest in Mr. Yang’s candidacy has been particularly high among younger, second-generation Asian-Americans, especially Chinese Americans like Ms. Jin. Many of his most fervent supporters are involved in the technology industry and actively promote him on social media. Some have even become enthusiastic members of the “Yang Gang,” the name given to Mr. Yang’s most devoted supporters.
在年轻的第二代亚裔美国人,尤其是像靳女士这样的华裔美国人中,对杨安泽的参选兴趣特别高。他的许多最狂热的支持者来自技术行业,并在社交媒体上积极宣传他。一些人甚至成了“杨帮”的热心成员,这个名字指的是杨安泽最忠实的支持者。
Norman Qian, 20, of Flushing, Queens, said he had first become aware of Mr. Yang’s candidacy because of friends in his predominantly Asian-American neighborhood. When he looked harder at Mr. Yang’s website, he said, he found he appreciated that Mr. Yang appeared data-driven and policy-oriented.
家住皇后区法拉盛的诺曼·钱(Norman Qian)今年20岁,他说,他最初知道杨安泽参选是因为社区里的朋友,那是一个以亚裔美国人为主的社区。他说,在更仔细地看了杨安泽的网站后,他发现他很欣赏杨安泽看来是受数据驱动的,并且侧重政策。
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“I really believe in his analysis of automation and how that’s going to take away jobs,” Mr. Qian said. “I also love the fact that Asian-Americans have been seeing more representation in our government, and I think Andrew Yang is at the forefront of all that.”
“我真的相信他对自动化的分析,以及那将怎样抢走工作岗位,”钱先生说。“我也很高兴地看到,亚裔美国人在我们的政府中有了更多的代表,我认为杨安泽是这方面的领先者。”
Research has shown that having Asian-American candidates in a campaign increases voter turnout by and donations from members of the racial group. Asian turnout increased nationwide from 27 percent in 2014 to 41 percent in 2018, a year when dozens of Asian-American or Pacific Islander candidates ran for Congress, according to one analysis.
研究表明,亚裔美国人参选会增加该族裔的投票率和捐款。据一项分析,美国亚裔选民的投票率从2014年的27%上升到了2018年的41%,数十名亚裔美国人或太平洋岛民在2018年参加了国会议员的竞选。
But while Asian-Americans are steadily gaining more political power, they have not reached the point where they can propel candidates to victory on their own. Only one congressional district in the mainland United States, in Northern California, is majority Asian-American. Any viable candidate for president will, of course, need to build broad coalitions across demographic groups, experts said.
但是,尽管亚裔美国人正在稳步地获得更多的政治权力,但他们还没有达到能够凭自己的力量让候选人获胜的程度。在美国大陆,只有北加州的一个国会选区是亚裔美国人占多数。专家们说,任何一位有希望当选总统的候选人,当然都需要在不同的人口群体中建立广泛的联盟。
Shekar Narasimhan, the chairman of AAPI Victory Fund, a super PAC focused on mobilizing voters, projected that the continued anti-immigration rhetoric by President Trump and Republicans in Congress could help drive 1 million new Asian-Americans and Pacific Islanders to vote next November.
AAPI胜利基金(AAPI Victory Fund)是一个专注于动员选民的超级政治行动委员会,它的主席谢卡尔·纳拉西姆汉(Shekar Narasimhan)预计,特朗普总统和国会共和党人持续不断的反移民言论,可能有助于激励100万新的亚裔美国人和太平洋岛民参加明年11月的投票。
“I don’t know if an AAPI candidate is going to win the presidency in 2020, but we are playing a long game,” Mr. Narasimhan said. “Do I think Andrew Yang will have an influence on the race and will make a difference? I absolutely do.”
“我不知道AAPI的候选人是否会赢得2020年的总统大选,但我们正在打一场持久战,”纳拉西姆汉说。“我认为杨安泽将会对竞选有影响、并将会起很大作用吗?绝对如此。”