The shaky video clips of Julian Assange’s arrest flashed around the world Thursday, the white-bearded prophet of the age of leaks being hauled by unsmiling security officers to a gray van marked Police.
朱利安·阿桑奇(Julian Assange)周四被捕的场面被晃动的视频捕捉下来,迅速在全球范围内传播。这位蓄着白胡子的泄密时代先知,被面无笑容的安保人员拖上了一辆带有“警察”字样的灰色面包车。
“We must resist!” he cried. “You can resist!” It was a scene that the very image-conscious Assange might appreciate: one man literally fighting the all-powerful state.
“我们必须抵抗!”他喊道。“你们是能够做到的!”这是非常重视形象的阿桑奇可能会喜欢的场景:一个人真地在与有着无上权力的国家作战。
It was also the latest — and surely not the last — dramatic turn in a career marked by both brilliant achievement and dubious judgment. Assange has long had a knack for celebrity, and as a tech-savvy, global, almost stateless figure, he captured the new influence the internet could give to individual citizens.
这也是他职业生涯中最新的——当然也不会是最后一次——戏剧性转折,这段生涯既有辉煌的成就,也有令人起疑的判断。长期以来,阿桑奇深谙成名之道。作为一个精通技术、四海为家、几乎没有国籍的人物,他抓住了互联网可能给个体民众带来的新影响力。
His creation of WikiLeaks helped empower a generation of whistleblowers and disgruntled insiders who could operate on an industrial scale, providing disclosures by the terabyte and enraging the powerful in many countries. WikiLeaks collaborated closely with major world publications, including The New York Times, in the release of secret records on the American-led wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and a quarter-million confidential State Department cables.
他创建的维基解密为一代告密者和心怀不满的内部人士壮了声势,使得他们可以进行大规模的运作,抛出巨量信息,令许多国家的当权者暴跳如雷。维基解密与包括《纽约时报》在内的世界主要出版物密切合作,公布了美国主导的阿富汗和伊拉克战争的秘密记录,以及25万份国务院机密电报。
But Assange has always elicited fervent reactions: He has been hailed as a hero of free information, or despised as a treacherous criminal worthy of death by drone — often depending on what WikiLeaks had recently been up to. Though he has always described himself as a journalist, he has been far too much of an activist to be satisfied with the role of neutral and fair-minded provider of information.
但阿桑奇总是引发强烈的反应:他或者被誉为公开信息的英雄;或者被鄙视为一个变节的罪犯,应该被无人机处死——至于何种态度,通常取决于维基解密最近在做什么。尽管他一直形容自己是一名记者,但他更像是一名活动分子,不满足于充当中立和公正的信息提供者角色。
周四,警方将阿桑奇带离厄瓜多尔驻伦敦大使馆。
周四,警方将阿桑奇带离厄瓜多尔驻伦敦大使馆。 EPA, via Shutterstock
He has proved a highly problematic, even embarrassing champion for the principles of press freedom and the public’s right to information, especially in recent years. For the past seven, he was hiding out at Ecuador’s tiny red brick embassy in London, not just from American prosecutors, but also from Swedish sex-crime investigators, who eventually closed their case.
事实证明他是一个令人起疑甚至尴尬的新闻自由和公众知情权捍卫者,尤其是在最近几年。在过去的七年里,他一直躲在厄瓜多尔驻伦敦大使馆里,那是一栋面积很小的红砖建筑。他要躲避的不仅仅是美国检察官,还有瑞典性犯罪调查人员,后者后来终止了案件的调查。
Assange, the world’s most famous self-proclaimed political refugee, lived there with his cat in a small corner room. He continued to run WikiLeaks, conducted news conferences before hundreds of fawning admirers from a balcony, rode his skateboard in the halls and played host to a parade of visitors, including Lady Gaga and Pamela Anderson, rumored to be a lover who brought with her vegan sandwiches.
作为世界上最著名的自封政治难民,阿桑奇和他的猫住在位于一个角落的小房间里。他继续运营维基解密,在阳台上对着数百名前来膜拜的仰慕者举行新闻发布会,在走廊玩滑板,招待各路访客,其中包括Lady Gaga和帕梅拉·安德森(Pamela Anderson),有传言说后者是他的情人,带来了她的纯素三明治。
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The arrest came at the end of a meandering legal path that began in 2010, when the Justice Department announced it was investigating WikiLeaks. Obama administration officials eventually dropped the idea, persuaded by press advocates that prosecuting WikiLeaks would set a dangerous precedent because many mainstream news organizations regularly publish classified information.
阿桑奇的被捕是一条曲折的法律之路的终点,它始于2010年,当时美国司法部宣布将对维基解密展开调查。奥巴马政府最终放弃了这个想法,他们被新闻自由的倡导人士说服,认为起诉维基解密将开创一个危险的先例,因为许多主流新闻机构经常发布机密信息。
In 2016, some of Assange’s former American sympathizers turned sharply against him after he made WikiLeaks into an enthusiastic instrument of Russia’s intervention in the American presidential election, doling out hacked Democratic emails to maximize their political effect, campaigning against Hillary Clinton on Twitter and promoting a false cover story about the source of the leaks.
2016年,阿桑奇在美国的一些支持者开始倒戈,因为他把维基解密变成了一个热衷于为俄罗斯干预美国总统大选服务的工具,公开黑客窃取的民主党邮件,以最大限度地发挥它们的政治功效,还在Twitter上发起反希拉里·克林顿的运动,力推一篇有关泄密源的不实报道。
That performance drew voluble praise from her opponent, Donald Trump, who regularly read from leaked Clinton campaign emails in his 2016 stump speeches and declared, “I love WikiLeaks.” But months later, while he was president, WikiLeaks posted a collection of classified documents on the CIA’s hacking tools, and Trump’s first CIA chief, Mike Pompeo, called Assange “a narcissist” and labeled the organization “a nonstate hostile intelligence service.”
这一番表现为他赢得了克林顿的竞选对手唐纳德·特朗普的高度赞扬,后者在2016年进行的竞选演说中经常读出泄露的希拉里竞选邮件,并宣称“我爱维基解密”。但几个月后,在他当上总统后,维基解密公布了一系列有关中央情报局(CIA)黑客工具的机密文件,特朗普政府的第一任CIA局长迈克·庞皮欧(Mike Pompeo)称阿桑奇是“一个自恋狂”,并给该组织贴上了“非国家敌对情报机构”的标签。
2016年,阿桑奇把维基解密变成了一个热衷于为俄罗斯干预美国总统大选服务的工具,公开黑客窃取的民主党邮件,以最大限度地发挥它们的政治功效,还在Twitter上发起反希拉里·克林顿的运动,力推一篇有关泄密源的不实报道。
2016年,阿桑奇把维基解密变成了一个热衷于为俄罗斯干预美国总统大选服务的工具,公开黑客窃取的民主党邮件,以最大限度地发挥它们的政治功效,还在Twitter上发起反希拉里·克林顿的运动,力推一篇有关泄密源的不实报道。 Doug Mills/The New York Times
His words were a harbinger of the single charge of conspiracy to commit computer intrusion against Assange that the Justice Department unsealed Thursday.
他的话预示了美国司法部周四公布的一项对阿桑奇密谋实施电脑入侵的指控。
In some ways, Assange, 47, has never fully shed the rebellious, secretive ways of the precocious Australian teenager with a complicated family background who, with two pals, formed a hacking collective called the International Subversives.
在某些方面,现年47岁的阿桑奇从未完全摆脱那个早熟的澳大利亚少年叛逆、隐秘的生活方式。他有着复杂的家庭背景,少年时曾与两个朋友组成一个名为“国际颠覆者”(International Subversives)的黑客组织。
1995年,阿桑奇在澳大利亚。
1995年,阿桑奇在澳大利亚。 Ian Kenins/The AGE, via Fairfax Media, via Getty Images
By 2006, when he founded WikiLeaks, Assange had adopted a nomadic lifestyle, roaming the world and pronouncing sometimes cryptic principles about secrecy and information. By 2008, he was living in East Africa and exposing corruption in Kenya on the new site, which had published more than 1 million documents, including some from the Iraq War and the Guantánamo prison, as well as a potpourri covering less momentous topics: an early script for an Indiana Jones movie, Wesley Snipes’ tax bill, and documents from the Church of Scientology and the Mormon church.
到2006年创建维基解密时,阿桑奇已经开始过着四处流浪的生活,在世界各地漫游,有时还宣布一些语焉不详的保密和信息原则。2008年,他生活在东非,在一个新网站上揭露肯尼亚的腐败情况,该网站发布了100万多万份文档,其中一些来自伊拉克战争和关塔那摩监狱,还有各种各样不那么重要的题材:一部印第安纳·琼斯(Indiana Jones)电影的早期剧本,韦斯利·斯奈普斯(Wesley Snipes)的税单,以及山达基教会(Church of Scientology)和摩门教会(the Mormon church)的文件。
But it was Chelsea Manning, then a low-level intelligence analyst stationed at a base in Iraq, who really put WikiLeaks, and hence Assange, on the map. Bored and harboring doubts about the war and American foreign policy, she began copying thousands of documents from a classified network onto CDs that she marked as Lady Gaga songs to avoid detection.
但是,真正让维基解密乃至阿桑奇出名的,还要算当时驻扎在伊拉克某基地的低级情报分析员切尔西·曼宁(Chelsea Manning)。出于对战争和美国外交政策的厌倦和疑虑,她把一个机密网络中的数千份文件复制到光盘上,并将其标记为Lady Gaga的歌曲,以免被发现。
切尔西•曼宁提供的大量机密军事文件令维基解密扬名全球。
切尔西•曼宁提供的大量机密军事文件令维基解密扬名全球。 Tobias Schwarz/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images
Back in the United States, she called both The New York Times and The Washington Post before connecting with WikiLeaks, where Assange and his fractious band of activist volunteers eagerly took up the cause in 2010.
回到美国后,她给《纽约时报》和《华盛顿邮报》都打了电话,之后才与维基解密取得了联系,2010年,阿桑奇和他的一群行动主义志愿者积极公布了她提供的信息。
They first posted a devastating video of two American helicopter gunships in Iraq shooting at suspected enemies on the ground — two of whom were among those killed and turned out to be war correspondents for Reuters.
他们首先发布了一段令人震惊的视频,两架在伊拉克的美国武装直升机向地面上的可疑敌人射击,其中两名死者是路透社的战地记者。
That was followed by publication, in coordination with The Times and other mainstream news organizations, of 77,000 military documents from the war in Afghanistan and then 392,000 from the war in Iraq.
随后,在时报和其他主流新闻机构的协调下,维基解密发表了阿富汗战争的7.7万份军事文件,以及伊拉克战争的39.2万份文件。
2003年,美国海军陆战队在伊拉克。维基解密与《纽约时报》和其他主流新闻机构合作,发布了数十万份战争文件,构成了“战争日志”。
2003年,美国海军陆战队在伊拉克。维基解密与《纽约时报》和其他主流新闻机构合作,发布了数十万份战争文件,构成了“战争日志”。 Ozier Muhammad/The New York Times
The War Logs, as they were called, were published in coordination with Le Monde, The Guardian and Der Spiegel, and they shed new light on civilian casualties, soldiers’ morale, the treatment of detainees and the use of contractors. An editor’s note explained that they provided “a real-time history of the war,” but also struck an ambivalent chord about their source, WikiLeaks, which the note said “was not involved in the news organizations’ research, reporting, analysis and writing.”
这些被他们称为“战争日志”的文件是与《世界报》(Le Monde)、《卫报》(Guardian)和《明镜周刊》(Der Spiegel)合作发布的,让人们对平民伤亡、士兵士气、被拘押者的待遇以及承包商的使用有了新的了解。一份编辑手记解释说,它们提供了“战争的实时历史”;但同时对它们的来源维基解密表示出矛盾心态,该手记中写道,维基解密“没有参与新闻机构的研究、报道、分析和写作”。
Human rights groups complained that WikiLeaks’ own publication of unredacted documents might put in danger Afghans who were named as working with the U.S. military, and the Iraq documents were stripped of names. When the diplomatic cables were published, The Times and other news organizations worked closely with WikiLeaks to redact names to protect vulnerable people — but later, in a dispute with a British editor, Assange decided simply to publish the massive cable collection without any edits.
人权组织指责维基解密公布未经涂黑的文件,会导致列出名字的那些与美国军方合作的阿富汗人面临危险,而伊拉克的文件中去掉了人名。公布外交电报时,时报和其他新闻机构曾与维基解密密切合作,对人名进行涂黑,以保护会面临危险的人——但后来在与一名英国编辑发生争执后,阿桑奇决定不做任何编辑,直接公布大量电文。
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Meanwhile, WikiLeaks was plagued with infighting, often touched off by Assange’s astringent style and ego. Two women complained to Swedish authorities about Assange’s sexual conduct with them, setting off a yearslong quest of investigators to question him. Angry American politicians denounced Assange, whose distinctive face had become recognizable worldwide, and called for his arrest or even his execution.
与此同时,维基解密被内斗所困扰,它们往往是由阿桑奇的尖刻风格和自负引发的。两名女性就阿桑奇与她们的性行为向瑞典当局报案,引发了调查人员对他长达一年的问讯。对于这个长着一张家喻户晓的特别面孔的人物,愤怒的美国政界人物大加斥责,呼吁逮捕甚至处决他。
In 2012, Ecuador’s foreign minister announced that Assange was at the embassy in London and had asked for political asylum. Small as they were, Assange’s quarters there did not cramp his desire to remain in the limelight. He pronounced his opinions on Twitter, briefly hosted a talk show on Russian television channel RT and continued to oversee the publication of leaked material. He sent an associate to assist Edward Snowden, a former National Security Agency contractor, when he flew to Russia from Hong Kong — even though WikiLeaks had not played a role in Snowden’s leak of agency documents.
2012年,厄瓜多尔外交部长宣布阿桑奇在该国驻伦敦大使馆,并且申请了政治庇护。他在那里的住所很小,但这并没有打击他继续待在风口浪尖的愿望。他在推特上发表自己的观点,一度在俄罗斯电视台RT上主持过一个谈话节目,并继续监督泄露材料的发布。他派了一名助手,协助前美国国家安全局承包商爱德华·斯诺登(Edward Snowden)从香港飞往俄罗斯——尽管维基解密并未在斯诺登泄露国家安全局文件一事中发挥作用。
Eventually, Assange’s isolation began to wear on him, a friend said Thursday, especially the long, lonely weekends in an essentially empty embassy that he could not leave.
周四,阿桑奇的一位朋友说,他终于开始感到孤立无援,尤其是被困在空荡荡的大使馆里度过的那些漫长而孤独的周末。
He was becoming deeply depressed and wondered about simply walking out, the friend said, speaking on the condition of anonymity. And relations with his hosts were becoming deeply strained, even adversarial, as diplomats grew tired of his behavior. Even Assange’s friends called him difficult, a narcissist with an outsize view of his importance and little interest in mundane matters like hygiene.
这位不愿透露姓名的朋友说,他变得非常沮丧,想着要不要干脆直接走出去。随着外交官们对他的行为日益厌倦,他与收留他的人的关系变得非常紧张,甚至有敌意。连阿桑奇的朋友也称他很难相处,说他非常自恋,把自己看得过于重要,对清洁卫生等琐事没什么兴趣。
阿桑奇的猫在厄瓜多尔大使馆陪伴他。
阿桑奇的猫在厄瓜多尔大使馆陪伴他。 Hannah Mckay/European Pressphoto Agency
A copy of a 2014 letter from Juan Falconí Puig, then Ecuador’s ambassador to Britain, to the Foreign Ministry, seen by The Times, complained of Assange’s penchant for riding a skateboard and playing soccer with visitors. His skateboarding, Falconí said, had “damaged floors, walls and doors.” When a security guard tried to take his soccer ball, Assange “began to shake, insult and push the agent,” reclaimed the ball and then “launched the ball at his body,” the letter said.
时报看到了厄瓜多尔驻英国大使胡安·法尔科尼·普伊赫(Juan Falconi Puig)2014年写给外交部的一封信的副本,其中抱怨阿桑奇喜欢玩滑板,和来访者踢足球。法尔科尼说,他的滑板“损坏了地板、墙壁和门”。信中说,一名保安试图拿走他的足球时,阿桑奇“开始发抖,侮辱并推搡了那名工作人员”,然后“把球扔向他”。
Assange’s presence in the embassy long after the Ecuadorean president who granted him political asylum had been replaced finally became too much for the government in Quito. Last year, it severed his internet access and limited his visitors.
给予阿桑奇政治庇护的厄瓜多尔总统下台很久以后,阿桑奇依然留在厄瓜多尔大使馆,最终,这让该国在基多的政府难以承受。去年,政府切断了他的互联网接入,限制了他的访客。
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Appearing in the Westminster Magistrates’ Court, his silver hair tied in a bun, Assange looked composed in a navy suit. The scene underscored the obvious: that Assange will use his legal predicament as a new platform for his defiance of authority and his crusade for WikiLeaks.
将一头银发盘成髻的阿桑奇出现在威斯敏斯特地方法院,身着深蓝色西装,看上去泰然自若。这一幕表明,阿桑奇显然将利用他的法律困境作为一个新的平台,挑战权威,为维基解密而战。
Outside the courthouse, a flock of cameras were pointing toward the guarded entrance, and a group of protesters chanted feebly: “Free, free, free Assange.”
在法院外,一堆摄像机对准了守卫森严的入口,一群抗议者无力地呼喊:“释放、释放、释放阿桑奇。”
周四阿桑奇被捕后,他的支持者聚集在威斯敏斯特地方法院外。
周四阿桑奇被捕后,他的支持者聚集在威斯敏斯特地方法院外。 Peter Summers/Getty Images
After Assange took his seat in court, a supporter wearing a scruffy fluorescent jacket gave him a thumbs-up from the public gallery. Assange returned the gesture.
阿桑奇在法庭上就座后,一名身穿破旧荧光色外套的支持者在公众旁听席上对他竖起大拇指。阿桑奇做了回应。
Waiting for the lawyers to enter, Assange read from a book, which he raised for the media to see: “History of the National Security State,” by Gore Vidal.
等待律师入场时,阿桑奇在读一本书,他把这本书拿给媒体看:戈尔·维达尔(Gore Vidal)的《国安国家史》(History of the National Security State)。