WASHINGTON — It sounds like something out of a science fiction movie: In April, China is said to have tested an invisibility cloak that would allow ordinary fighter jets to suddenly vanish from radar screens.
华盛顿——听上去像是科幻电影里的东西:中国据称在4月测试了一种隐形屏障,可以让普通战斗机突然从雷达屏幕上消失。
This advancement, which could prove to be a critical intelligence breakthrough, is one that American officials fear China may have gained in part from a Chinese researcher who roused suspicions while working on a similar technology at a Duke University laboratory in 2008. The researcher, who was investigated by the F.B.I. but never charged with a crime, ultimately returned to China, became a billionaire and opened a thriving research institute that worked on some projects related to those he studied at Duke.
这一进展可能会被证明是一项重要的情报突破,美国官员担心它一定程度上是受益于一名中国研究人员,此人曾于2008年在杜克大学一座实验室研究类似技术,因此引起了怀疑。他曾接受联邦调查局调查,但始终未受任何指控,最终回到中国,成为亿万富翁,开办了一个成功的研究机构,其中一部分研究项目与他在杜克的研究有关联。
The Trump administration, concerned about China’s growing technological prowess, is considering strict measures to block Chinese citizens from performing sensitive research at American universities and research institutes over fears they may be acquiring intellectual secrets, according to people familiar with the deliberations.
据知情人士透露,特朗普政府担心中国日益增强的技术实力,正在考虑采取严厉措施,阻止中国公民在美国大学和研究机构进行敏感研究,以免他们获得情报机密。
The White House is discussing whether to limit the access of Chinese citizens to the United States, including restricting certain types of visas available to them and greatly expanding rules pertaining to Chinese researchers who work on projects with military or intelligence value at American companies and universities. The exact types of projects that would be subject to restrictions are unclear, but the measures could clamp down on collaboration in advanced materials, software and other technologies at the heart of Beijing’s plan to dominate cutting-edge technologies like advanced microchips, artificial intelligence and electric cars, known as Made in China 2025.
白宫正在讨论是否限制中国公民进入美国,包括限制他们获得某些类型的签证;以及是否对相关规定进行大幅扩展,限制在美国公司和大学从事有军事或情报价值项目的中国研究人员。目前尚不清楚具体哪项目将会受限,但这些措施可能会严格管制先进材料和软件方面的合作,以及其他涉及北京《中国制造2025》计划核心技术的合作,该计划力图使中国在先进微芯片、人工智能和电动汽车等尖端技术方面居于统治地位。 
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The potential curbs are part of a broad set of measures the administration says are necessary to combat a growing national security threat from China, which it has accused of pressuring or coercing American companies into handing over valuable trade secrets. But blocking Chinese citizens’ access to American laboratories over fears of spying would be a significant escalation in an emerging Cold War with the Chinese over which nation will claim technological dominance.
可能进行的限制是一系列广泛措施的一部分,美国政府认为,有必要采取这些措施,打击中国对美国日益加大的国家安全威胁。美国政府指责中国施压或胁迫美国企业交出宝贵的商业机密。不过,因担心间谍活动而阻止中国公民加入美国的实验室,在美中之间就技术主导地位展开的这场日渐成形的冷战中,将是一个重要的发展。
The details are still under discussion and it is not known how many people could be affected, but restrictions would probably fall most heavily on graduate students, postdoctoral researchers and employees of technology companies in the United States on temporary visas. More than one million foreign students study in the United States each year, with roughly one-third coming from China.
细节仍在讨论之中,尚不清楚有多少人会受到影响,但限制很可能会主要面向研究生、博士后研究员以及凭借临时签证在美国的技术公司工作的员工。每年在美国留学的外国学生超过100万,其中约有三分之一来自中国。
The restrictions would cover Chinese nationals, but with two exceptions: those with green cards, which give them the right to permanent residency in the United States, and those who have been granted asylum because of persecution in their home country. Also exempt would be former Chinese nationals who renounce their citizenship and become naturalized Americans.
这些限制将适用于中国公民,但有两个例外:持有绿卡的人——绿卡赋予他们在美国永久居留的权利——以及因在祖国受到迫害而获得庇护的人。此外,放弃国籍、成为归化美国人的前中国公民也将被豁免。
特朗普政府担心军用技术可能会流入中国。
特朗普政府担心军用技术可能会流入中国。 Agence France-Presse — Getty Images
An attempt to crack down on Chinese citizens could further chill relations between the two nations, whose closely integrated markets support the most prominent companies around the globe. Technology companies like Apple, Qualcomm, IBM and General Electric have hitched their future growth to access to the Chinese market, which the Trump administration is now threatening to curtail.
打击中国公民的行动可能会进一步冷却两国的关系。两国紧密联系的市场支持着全球最著名的一些企业。苹果(Apple)、高通(Qualcomm)、IBM和通用电气(General Electric)等科技公司已将未来的增长寄托在进入中国市场上,而现在特朗普政府的这些打算可能会构成阻碍。
This week, a delegation of administration officials, including the Treasury secretary, Steven Mnuchin, will head to China for discussions to help avoid a brewing trade war. But additional curbs on Chinese citizens could make those tough discussions even harder.
本周,包括财政部长史蒂文·努钦(Steven Mnuchin)在内的政府官员代表团将前往中国谈判,希望避免一场酝酿中的贸易战。但对中国公民的这些额外限制,可能会使这些本就艰难的讨论更加困难。
President Trump has threatened tariffs on roughly $150 billion of Chinese goods in retaliation for unfair trade practices — a proposal that sparked tariff threats of China’s own. The administration is expected to detail new plans for restrictions on Chinese investment in the United States by the end of May. Congress is also considering giving the United States broader authority to restrict Chinese investments.
特朗普总统威胁要对约1500亿美元的中国商品征收关税,以报复不公平的贸易行为。这项提议引发了中国的关税威胁。预计特朗普政府将在5月底之前制定出限制中国在美投资的详细新计划。国会也在考虑给予美国限制中国投资的更广泛权力。
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These measures could prompt more damaging retaliation from China, which has already promised to place tariffs on at least $50 billion of American products. They also appear to be fueling anti-American sentiment within Chinese borders. China has tightened measures against possible spying, even posting public service announcements in subway trains warning citizens to watch foreigners for signs of espionage.
这些措施可能会促使中国采取更具破坏性的报复行动,中国已承诺对至少500亿美元的美国商品征收关税。它们似乎也在助长中国境内的反美情绪。中国已经加强了打击可能存在的间谍活动的措施,甚至在地铁里发布公共服务通告,警告市民留意外国人从事间谍活动的迹象。
In America, research institutes look particularly vulnerable to espionage. According to Defense Department statistics, nearly a quarter of all foreign efforts to obtain sensitive or classified information in 2014 were routed through academic institutions. At a congressional hearing in April, Michelle Van Cleave, a former national counterintelligence executive, said the freedom and openness of the United States made the country a “spy’s paradise.” Chinese and Russian agents both come to the United States with “detailed shopping lists,” she added.
在美国,研究机构似乎尤其容易受到间谍活动的影响。据美国国防部统计,2014年,外国获取敏感或机密信息的行动有近四分之一都是通过学术机构进行的。在今年4月的一次国会听证会上,前国家反间谍官员米歇尔·范·克利夫(Michelle Van Cleave)表示,自由和开放导致美国成为“间谍的天堂”。她还表示,中国和俄罗斯的特工们都带着“详细的购物清单”来到美国。
Yet throwing up barriers to protect American technology could come at a high cost. Restricting the free flow of people and information could disrupt innovation at American laboratories, a key destination for talented researchers from around the globe. It could threaten the substantial profits that American universities earn from foreign students, who often pay full tuition.
但是,为保护美国的技术而设置障碍可能会付出高昂的代价。限制人员和信息的自由流动可能会破坏美国实验室的创新能力,美国的实验室是世界各地有才华的研究人员的一个重要目的地。它还可能会影响美国大学从外国学生那里获取丰厚的收入,那些学生经常需要支付全额学费。
And it could lead to discrimination. Some fear that the Trump administration’s comprehensive challenge to China — always an easy political target in the United States — is cultivating a xenophobic, Cold War mentality in Washington that casts all Chinese people as enemies.
这还可能导致歧视。有些人担心,特朗普政府对中国的全面挑战——该国在美国很容易成为政治靶子——正在华盛顿散布排外的冷战思维,把所有华裔都视为敌人。
2016年,纽约的中国毕业生。为保护美国的技术而设置障碍可能会付出高昂的代价,其中包括潜在的歧视问题,还可能影响美国大学从支付全额学费的外国学生那里获取丰厚的收入。
2016年,纽约的中国毕业生。为保护美国的技术而设置障碍可能会付出高昂的代价,其中包括潜在的歧视问题,还可能影响美国大学从支付全额学费的外国学生那里获取丰厚的收入。 Li Muzi/Xinhua, via Getty Images
The Committee of 100, a group of prominent Chinese-Americans, has denounced government assertions that Chinese professors, scientists and students in the United States may be gathering intelligence for the Chinese government as “disturbing and prejudicial” and warned that it has overtones of anti-Japanese sentiment that was rampant during World War II.
著名的华裔美国人团体“百人会”(Committee of 100)认为特朗普政府一口咬定美国的华裔教授、科学家和学生可能在为中国政府收集情报,这是“令人不安,具有偏见”的,并警告称,这让人想起二战期间针对日本人的那种普遍排斥情绪。
“To target a whole group of people as being subject to greater suspicion, based purely on race and national origin, and in advance of any facts or evidence, goes against the fundamental American ideals of the presumption of innocence, due process and equal protection for all. It also fans the flames of hysteria,” the group said in a statement.
“在找到任何事实或证据之前,纯粹基于种族和民族出身,将一整群人作为更重大的怀疑对象,违背了美国关于无罪推定、正当程序和平等保护所有人的基本理念。它也助长了歇斯底里的怒火,”该团体在一份声明中表示。
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Administration officials have been debating restricting visas offered to Chinese nationals for months as part of the broad package of measures targeting China economically. But the new plan under discussion by the White House would be a much more targeted measure, and one with potentially big consequences for American industry. While the Obama administration also proposed barring foreign students from company-sponsored research at American universities with national security implications, the Trump administration’s measures could apply more broadly to private research facilities as well as new products and technologies.
几个月来,美国政府官员一直在讨论限制向中国公民发放签证,这是在经济上针对中国的一系列措施的一部分。但白宫讨论的这项新计划将更有针对性,而且可能对美国的工业产生重大影响。虽然奥巴马政府也曾基于国家安全的考虑,提议禁止外国学生在美国大学参与公司赞助的研究,但特朗普政府的措施可能更广泛地适用于私人研究机构,以及新产品和新技术。
The United States already restricts who can work on sensitive technology. Researchers on projects deemed classified are carefully vetted and must obtain security clearances. The next level down are research projects that are subject to so-called export controls — including many with potential military applications, such as computer programs and hardware that might be used to model nuclear explosions. Universities and companies working on this material need to obtain a special license from the government to employ foreign researchers.
美国对敏感技术工作参与者已经做出了限制。被视为机密项目的研究人员必须经过仔细审查,获得安全许可。安保级别更低一层的是那些受制于所谓的出口管制的研究项目,包括许多具有军事应用潜力的项目,例如,可以用于模拟核爆炸的计算机程序和硬件。制造此类材料的大学和公司需要获得政府的特别许可才能雇用外国研究人员。
These products do not need to leave the United States to fall under export rules. All it takes to trigger export controls is for citizens from certain countries — including China, Russia and many former Soviet republics — to be involved in almost any way. That ranges from physical possession of the product to written descriptions and even verbal discussions of it. The administration is considering broadening the range of goods and services traded with China that would be subject to these so-called deemed export rules.
不是只有那些离开美国的产品才受出口管制规定的限制。只要来自某些国家(包括中国、俄罗斯以及苏联的很多成员国)的公民以几乎任何方式参与项目,就会触发出口管制。这包括持有该产品实物、书面描述,甚至是口头讨论。特朗普政府正考虑在这些所谓的出口规定制约中扩大与中国贸易的商品和服务的覆盖范围。
If the proposal is approved by the Commerce Department, and ultimately by Mr. Trump, American companies and universities would be required to obtain special licenses for Chinese nationals who have any contact whatsoever with a much wider range of goods — making it harder for Chinese citizens to work on a range of scientific research and product development programs.
如果该提议得到商务部批准并最终获得特朗普同意,那么中国公民若想接触某些货品,需要由美国公司和大学去申请特殊的授权——且受管制物品种类较之前有大幅增多,这使中国公民更难在一系列科学研究和产品开发项目中工作。
Fueling the push are instances like the one involving Ruopeng Liu, a Chinese citizen and a promising student at Duke who was helping to develop a cloak that shields objects from a broad spectrum of wave frequencies. The professor leading the Pentagon-funded lab, David R. Smith, became suspicious of Mr. Liu, who seemed intent on collaborating with old colleagues in China, and even invited them to tour the lab and photograph Duke’s equipment.
中国公民刘若鹏所涉的这类事件,促使美国政府有了此种打算。刘是一名颇有前途的杜克大学学生,曾参与开发一种遮盖物,让物体无法被某频段内的电磁波探测到。五角大楼资助的这个实验室由戴维·R·史密斯(David R. Smith)负责领导,他对刘若鹏产生了怀疑。刘若鹏似乎想要与中国的老同事合作,甚至还邀请他们来实验室参观并拍摄了杜克大学的设备。
It became clear to Mr. Smith that Mr. Liu was trying to share the cutting-edge technology he was studying in the United States with colleagues in China. The institute he founded on his return to China eventually received millions of dollars of investment, registered thousands of patents and even played host to President Xi Jinping of China.
后来史密斯意识到,刘若鹏是想要与中国的同事分享他在美国学习的先进技术。他回国后建立的机构后来获得了数百万美元的投资,注册了数千项专利,甚至还接待过中国国家主席习近平。
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Mr. Liu did not respond to interview requests, but in past interviews, he has maintained that he did nothing wrong, beyond taking advantage of an open and collaborative university atmosphere. Like many projects in the United States, most of Mr. Smith’s work at Duke was early-stage research that was not classified or categorized as a deemed export.
刘若鹏并未回应采访请求,但在过去的采访中,他坚称自己并未做错什么,只不过是利用了开放合作的大学氛围。和美国的许多项目一样,史密斯在杜克大学进行的大部分工作都是早期阶段的研究,并不属于视同出口的范围。
Daniel Golden, who tells Mr. Liu’s story in his book, “Spy Schools,” said Mr. Liu exploited a gray area that allows a large amount of sensitive, taxpayer-funded technology to flow to foreign governments. “Globalization has transformed American universities into a front line for espionage,” Mr. Golden said.
丹尼尔·戈尔登(Daniel Golden)在《间谍学校》(Spy Schools)一书中讲述了刘若鹏的故事。他表示,刘若鹏利用了一个灰色地带,导致大量由纳税人出资所得的敏感信息流向外国政府。“全球化已使美国大学转变成了间谍活动的前线,”戈尔登说。
Yet the academic community is likely to push back on the administration’s efforts over concerns that tighter controls on Chinese nationals could hurt American universities’ ability to collaborate on cutting-edge research and wind up benefiting China even more.
然而,学术界可能会反对政府的这一努力,他们担心加强对中国公民的控制,可能会损害美国大学尖端研究的合作能力,并最终使中国受益更多。
Many students at graduate programs in the United States in computer science, physics, chemistry and other sciences are from China. If the United States makes it harder for aerospace manufacturers, defense contractors and others to employ Chinese nationals, more of these recently trained Chinese graduate students may return to China, taking their skills with them.
许多在美国攻读计算机科学、物理、化学以及其他学科研究生项目的学生都来自中国。如果美国令航空制造业、国防承包商以及其他行业更难雇用中国公民,那么就会有更多这些新近接受了培训的中国研究生带着它们的技术返回中国。
Stephen A. Orlins, the president of the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations, said that restricting Chinese researchers would be “tragic” for American universities. “It’s important that we don’t let the security fears overwhelm what has made America great,” he said.
美中关系全国委员会(National Committee on U.S.-China Relations)会长欧伦斯(Stephen A. Orlins)表示,限制中国研究人员对美国大学而言是“悲剧性的”。“重要的是我们不能让安全担忧压倒了曾让美国伟大的东西,”他说。
Even Mr. Smith said he did not support tougher restrictions on Chinese researchers. Instead, he said, universities should better educate researchers about existing rules and what to do in case of intellectual property theft.
甚至史密斯也表示,不赞同加强对中国研究人员的限制。相反,他说,大学应让研究人员对现行规定有更好的了解,以及在遇到知识产权盗窃时该怎么做。
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“With reasonable safeguards I think we can manage it,” he said. “If we were to overreact, I think it could be very damaging to our universities.”
“我想我们可以用合理的保护措施来应付,”他说。“如果我们反应过度,我想这会对我们的大学造成极大的伤害。”