SAN FRANCISCO — Google is facing increased scrutiny by lawmakers in Washington over its size and influence. Now, a research scientist who recently resigned from the company in protest is urging them on.
旧金山——谷歌正面临国会议员对其规模和影响力的越来越严格的审查。现在,该公司一位愤而辞职的研究员敦促他们继续施压。
In a harshly worded letter sent this week, the former employee, Jack Poulson, criticized Google’s handling of a project to build a version of its search engine that would be acceptable to the government of China. He said the project was a “catastrophic failure of the internal privacy review process.”
谷歌前雇员杰克·波尔森(Jack Poulson)在本周发出的一封措辞严厉的信件中,对该公司尝试打造一个中国政府可以接受的搜索引擎版本的做法提出了批评。他说,该项目是“内部隐私审查流程的灾难性失败”。
He said lawmakers should increase transparency and oversight of the company and technology industry, saying that there is a “broad pattern of unaccountable decision making.”
他表示,立法者应该促进该公司和科技行业的透明度,增加监管力度,并表示目前存在一种“广泛的、不负责任的决策模式”。
Dr. Poulson left the company after news articles revealed the existence of the project last month. It was first reported on by the Intercept news site.
波尔森博士在上个月关于该项目的新闻报道出来后离开了该公司。消息最早是由Intercept新闻网站报道的。
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Google’s chief privacy officer, Keith Enright, testified on Wednesday before a congressional committee about the company’s approach to data protection. Executives from Apple, AT&T, Amazon, Twitter and Charter Communications also appeared at the hearing.
谷歌首席隐私官基斯·恩莱特(Keith Enright)周三在一个国会委员会就该公司的数据保护方法作证。来自苹果(Apple)、AT&T、亚马逊(Amazon)、Twitter和特许通信公司(Charter Communications)的高管也出席了听证会。
Dr. Poulson said the Chinese project, called Dragonfly, had several “disturbing components.” A prototype, he said, would allow a partner company in China to view a person’s search history based on his or her phone number. He said the project also censored an extensive list of subjects that included information about air quality and China’s president, Xi Jinping.
波尔森博士说,这个名为“蜻蜓”(Dragonfly)的中国项目有几个“令人不安的组成部分”。他说,其中一个样品将允许中国的合作伙伴公司根据电话号码查看一个人的搜索历史。他说,该项目还对一系列广泛的主题实施审查,包括空气质量信息和中国国家主席习近平。
He also pointed lawmakers to commitments Google made as part of a settlement with the Federal Trade Commission in 2011. Google, among other requirements, must submit to regular privacy audits and follow a comprehensive privacy program under the settlement. The privacy program includes reviews of all Google products for privacy issues before they are released.
他还向议员们指出,谷歌在2011年对联邦贸易委员会做了承诺,作为达成和解的一部分。除其他要求外,谷歌必须定期提交隐私审计,并遵循和解协议下的全面隐私计划。该计划包括在发布之前对所有谷歌产品的隐私问题进行审核。
谷歌周一发布了隐私立法框架。
谷歌周一发布了隐私立法框架。 Pau Barrena/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images
Google’s privacy reviewers are assigned to analyze Google code and make sure it does not violate user privacy. But after Dragonfly became public, several reviewers said they had signed off on sections of code for Dragonfly without fully understanding the project or its privacy implications, according to two people familiar with the process. The people would speak only on the condition of anonymity to protect their relationships at the company.
谷歌的隐私审核人员会被派去分析谷歌代码,确保其不会侵犯用户隐私。但据两位知情人士透露,在“蜻蜓”曝光后,一些审核员表示他们在没有完全理解该项目或其隐私影响的情况下,签署通过了“蜻蜓”的部分代码。两位知情人为了保护他们在该公司的关系人,因此要求匿名。
The reviewers, they said, felt that pertinent information about Dragonfly’s code had been withheld from them, and raised questions about the review process that went unanswered.
他们说,审核人认为谷歌向他们隐瞒了有关“蜻蜓”代码的相关信息,而且他们对审查过程提出的问题没有得到回答。
In his testimony on Wednesday, Mr. Enright said Google was not close to releasing a search product in China.
在周三的证词中,恩莱特表示谷歌远未到在中国发布搜索产品的地步。
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“If we were, in fact, to finalize a plan to launch a search product in China, my team would be actively engaged,” he said. “Our privacy and security controls would be followed, and any such project or product would follow and be consistent with our values in privacy and data protection.”
“事实上,如果我们最终确定在中国推出搜索产品的计划,我的团队将会积极参与,”他说。 “我们将遵循我们的隐私和安全控制措施,任何此类项目或产品都将遵循我们在隐私和数据保护方面的价值观。”
Google on Monday released a framework for privacy legislation that describes to lawmakers how the company views its role in data protection.
谷歌于周一发布了一份隐私立法框架,它向立法者描述了公司如何看待自己在数据保护方面的作用。
“Innovative uses of data shouldn’t be presumptively unlawful just because they are unprecedented, but organizations must account for and mitigate potential harms,” the framework says. “This includes taking particular care with sensitive information that can pose a significant risk. To enable organizations to develop effective mitigations, regulators should be clear about what constitutes a harm.”
“数据的创新使用不应仅仅因为它们是前所未有的就被推定为非法,但组织必须考虑并减轻其潜在的危害,”该框架说。“其中必须特别注意可能造成重大风险的敏感信息。为了使组织能够制定有效的缓解措施,监管机构应该明确什么问题会构成伤害。”
In a blog post, Mr. Enright said the company supported comprehensive regulation on privacy. Google has also recently increased its privacy efforts, forming a team dedicated to privacy and data protection.
在一篇博客文章中,恩莱特表示,该公司支持全面的隐私监管。谷歌最近还加强了隐私保护工作,组建了一支致力于隐私和数据保护的团队。
Google left China in 2010, denouncing government censorship. That year the company also said it had discovered that Chinese hackers had attacked the company’s corporate infrastructure.
谷歌于2010年离开中国,并谴责中国政府的审查制度。同年,谷歌还表示发现中国黑客攻击了该公司的企业基础设施。
“It should be pretty obvious that they should be asked what changed between 2010 and today,” said Cynthia Wong, a senior researcher at Human Rights Watch.
“很明显,他们应该被问问,从2010年至今,发生了什么变化,”“人权观察”组织的高级研究员辛西娅·黄(Cynthia Wong)说。