HONG KONG — Last month the Vatican announced that it had come to a provisional agreement with the government of China over the appointment of Catholic bishops. Supporters of the deal say that it finally brings unity after longstanding division — between an underground Church loyal to the pope and an official church approved by the Chinese authorities — and that with it, the Chinese government has for the first time recognized the authority of the pope. In fact, the deal is a major step toward the annihilation of the real Church in China.
香港——上个月,梵蒂冈宣布已经就天主教主教的任命与中国政府达成一项临时协议。该协议的支持者们表示,在忠于教宗的地下教会与中国当局批准的官方教会长久分裂后,它终于带来了团结。支持者还表示,伴随着这个协议,中国政府首次承认了教宗的权威。实际上,该协议是在中国消除真正教会存在的一大步。
I know the Church in China, I know the Communists and I know the Holy See. I’m a Chinese from Shanghai. I lived many years in the mainland and many years in Hong Kong. I taught in seminaries throughout China — in Shanghai, Xian, Beijing, Wuhan, Shenyang — between 1989 and 1996.
我了解中国教会,我了解共产党,我也了解教廷。我是一名来自上海的中国人。我在大陆和香港都居住过多年。1989年到1996年期间,我在上海、西安、北京、武汉、沈阳等中国各地的神学院教过课。
Pope Francis, an Argentine, doesn’t seem to understand the Communists. He is very pastoral, and he comes from South America, where historically military governments and the rich got together to oppress poor people. And who there would come out to defend the poor? The Communists. Maybe even some Jesuits, and the government would call those Jesuits Communists.
作为阿根廷人的教宗方济各似乎并不理解共产党。他克尽牧职,并且来自南美,那里一直是军政府和富人串通一气压迫穷人的地方。而有谁会出来保护穷人呢?共产主义者。甚至可能还有一些耶稣会士,政府则会称那些耶稣会士为共产党人。
Francis may have natural sympathy for Communists because for him, they are the persecuted. He doesn’t know them as the persecutors they become once in power, like the Communists in China.
方济各可能对共产党人有种自然而然的好感,因为这些人是因为他受到迫害的。他不知道他们一旦掌权就会成为迫害他人的一方,正如中国的共产党人。
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The Holy See and Beijing cut off relations in the 1950s. Catholics and other believers were arrested and sent to labor camps. I went back to China in 1974 during the Cultural Revolution; the situation was terrible beyond imagination. A whole nation under slavery. We forget these things too easily. We also forget that you can never have a truly good agreement with a totalitarian regime.
罗马教廷和北京于1950年代断交。天主教徒及其他宗教的信徒被送到劳改营。1974年文化大革命期间我曾回到中国,当时的情况糟糕到超出人的想象。整个国家都处在奴役之下。我们太容易忘记这种事了。我们还会忘记,你永远无法与一个极权主义政权达成真正的好协议。
China has opened up, yes, since the 1980s, but even today everything is still under the Chinese Communist Party’s control. The official church in China is controlled by the so-called patriotic association and the bishops’ conference, both under the thumb of the party.
诚然,中国自1980年代就实现了开放,但即使是今天,一切仍然处在中国共产党的控制之下。中国的正式教会由所谓的爱国会和主教团把控,这两个组织由共产党支配。
From 1985 to 2002, Cardinal Jozef Tomko was the prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, which oversees the Church’s missionary work. He was a Slovak, who understood communism, and he was wise.
从1985年到2002年,枢机主教约瑟夫·托姆科(Jozef Tomko)是万民福音圣部(Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples)秘书长,该组织负责教廷的传教事务。他是一名了解共产主义的斯洛伐克人,而且他很明智。
Cardinal Tomko’s position was that the underground Church was the only lawful Church in China, and that the official church was unlawful. But he also understood that there were many good people in the official church. Like the bishop of Xian, who for a time was a vice chairman of the bishops’ conference. Or the bishop of Shanghai, Jin Luxian, a Jesuit and a brilliant linguist, who had been interned in the 1950s.
托姆科枢机的立场是,地下教会是中国唯一的合法教会,并且认为官方教会不合法。但他也明白,官方教会里有许多好人。像是西安的主教,一度曾担任主教团副主席。或者像上海主教金鲁贤,他是一名通晓多国语言的耶稣会士,曾在1950年代遭到拘禁。
Back then, the Holy See had a cautious policy that it implemented generously. It was amenable to reasonable compromise but had a bottom line.
当时的教廷是政策谨慎,但实施起来有魄力。可以做一些合理的让步,但会有底线。
Things changed in 2002, when Cardinal Tomko reached the age of retirement. A young Italian with no foreign experience replaced him and began legitimizing official Chinese bishops too quickly, too easily, creating the impression that now the Vatican would automatically second Beijing’s selection.
2002年,情况发生了改变,当时托姆科枢机到了退休年龄。一名毫无外国经验的年轻意大利人取代了他,开始过于迅速、过于简单地将官方中国主教合法化,给人的印象是,如今梵蒂冈会不假思索地支持北京的人选。
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Hope returned when Joseph Ratzinger, a German who had lived through both Nazism and communism, became Pope Benedict XVI. He brought on Cardinal Ivan Dias, an Indian who had spent time in West Africa and South Korea, to head the congregation of evangelization, and that internationalized the Vatican. A special commission for the Church in China also was set up. I was appointed to it.
当既经历过纳粹,又经历过共产主义的德国人约瑟夫·拉青格(Joseph Ratzinger)成为本笃十六世教宗时,希望又回来了。他让枢机主教伊万·迪亚斯(Ivan Dias)担任万民福音部部长,这是一位印度人,曾在西非和韩国待过。这个举动让梵蒂冈变得国际化了。当时还为中国教会设立了一个特别委员会。我被任命在其中任职。
Unfortunately, Cardinal Dias believed in Ostpolitik and in the teachings of a state secretary in the 1980s who had been a proponent of détente with Soviet-controlled governments. And he applied the policy to China.
不幸的是,迪亚斯枢机认同“东方政策”(Ostpolitik)以及1980年代一位国务卿的主张,此人一直支持与受苏联控制国家的改善关系。而他将这一政策用在了中国身上。
When Benedict issued his famous letter to the Church of China in 2007, calling for reconciliation among all Catholics there, something incredible happened. The Chinese translation was released with errors, including one too important not to have been deliberate. In a delicate passage about how priests in the underground might accept recognition by the Chinese authorities without necessarily betraying the faith, a critical caveat was left out about how “almost always,” however, the Chinese authorities imposed requirements “contrary to the dictates” of Catholics’ conscience.
当本笃于2007年向中国教会发出他的著名信件,呼吁那里的所有天主教徒实现和解时,发生了令人难以置信的事情。中文翻译被发布时出现了错误,其中一处太过关键,以至于不太可能是无心之失。有一段精心陈述了地下司铎如何接受中国当局承认而不算作背叛信仰,但一个重要的告诫被删去了,也就是中国当局“几乎总是”施加与天主教徒的良心“截然相反”的要求。
Some of us raised the issue and the text was eventually corrected on the Vatican’s website. But by then, the mistaken original had widely circulated in China, and some bishops there had understood Benedict’s historic letter as encouragement to join the state-sanctioned church.
我们中的一些人提出了这个问题,最终在梵蒂冈的网站上,文本得以纠正。但到那时,错误的原文在中国广为流传,一些主教将本笃的历史性信件理解为鼓励加入国家认可的教会。
Today, we have Pope Francis. Naturally optimistic about communism, he is being encouraged to be optimistic about the Communists in China by cynics around him who know better.
今天,我们有了方济各教宗。他对共产主义有着自然的乐观态度,而他身边的一些明白个中利害的犬儒主义者也在怂恿他对中国的共产主义者保持乐观。
The commission for the Church in China no longer convenes, even though it has not been dissolved. Those of us who come from the periphery, the front lines, are being marginalized.
关于中国教会的委员会已不再召开会议,尽管尚未解散。我们这些来自外围、来自前线的人正在被边缘化。
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I was among those who applauded Francis’s decision to appoint Pietro Parolin as secretary of state in 2013. But I now think that Cardinal Parolin cares less about the Church than about diplomatic success. His ultimate goal is the restoration of formal relations between the Vatican and Beijing.
方济各在2013年决定任命伯多禄·帕罗林(Pietro Parolin)为国务卿,当时我是众多为此欢呼雀跃的人之一。但我现在认为,帕罗林枢机更关心外交上的成功,而不是教会。他的最终目标是恢复梵蒂冈与北京之间的正式关系。
Francis wants to go to China — all popes have wanted to go to China, starting with John Paul II. But what did Francis’s visit to Cuba in 2015 bring the Church? The Cuban people? Almost nothing. And did he convert the Castro brothers?
方济各想去中国——从若望·保禄二世开始,所有教宗都想去中国。但是方济各在2015年对古巴的访问给教会带来了什么呢?古巴人民?几乎没有。他让卡斯特罗兄弟皈依了吗?
The faithful in China are suffering and are now coming under increasing pressure. Early this year, the government tightened regulations on the practice of religion. Priests in the underground on the mainland tell me that they are discouraging parishioners from coming to Mass to avoid arrest.
中国的信徒正在遭受痛苦,现在正面临越来越大的压力。今年年初,政府收紧了对宗教活动的规定。大陆的地下司铎告诉我,他们不鼓励教区居民来做弥撒,以避免被捕。
Francis himself has said that although the recent agreement — whose terms haven’t been disclosed — provides for “a dialogue about eventual candidates,” it is the pope who “appoints” bishops. But what good is having the last word when China will have all the words before it? In theory the pope could veto the nomination of any bishop who seems unworthy. But how many times can he do that, really?
方济各本人曾表示,虽然最近的协议——其条款尚未披露——规定“就最终候选人展开对话”,但是由教宗“任命”主教。但是,如果中国拥有前面所有的决定权,那么拥有最后决定权又有什么用呢?从理论上讲,教宗可以否决任何看起来不称职的主教提名。但这个权力他能行使多少次呢,他真能行使吗?
Soon after the deal was announced, two Chinese bishops from the official church were sent to Vatican City for the synod, a regular meeting of bishops from around the world. Who selected them? Both men are known to be close to the Chinese government. As I have said, their presence at the gathering was an insult to the good bishops of China.
协议宣布后不久,两位来自官方教会的中国主教被派往梵蒂冈参加教会会议,这是为世界各地主教举行的定期会议。谁选择了他们?众所周知,这两个人都与中国政府关系密切。正如我所说,他们出席该会议是对中国那些好主教的侮辱。
Their presence also raises the painful question of whether the Vatican will now legitimize the seven official bishops who remain illegitimate. The pope has already lifted their excommunication, paving the way for them to be formally granted dioceses.
他们的出席也提出了一个痛苦的问题:梵蒂冈现在是否会将仍属非法的七名官方主教扶正。教宗已经解除了他们的绝罚,为他们被正式授予教区铺平了道路。
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The official church has about 70 bishops; the underground Church has only about 30. The Chinese authorities say: You recognize our seven and we’ll recognize your 30. That sounds like a good trade-off. But will the 30 then be allowed to still function as underground bishops? Surely not.
官方教会有大约70位主教;地下教会只有大约30位。中国当局说:你们承认我们的七个,我们就承认你们的30个。这听起来像是一个很好的交易。但是,那30个人是否仍然可以继续担任地下主教?当然不是。
They will be forced to join the so-called bishops’ conference. They will be forced to join the others in that bird cage, and will become a minority among them. The Vatican’s deal, struck in the name of unifying the Church in China, means the annihilation of the real Church in China.
他们将被迫参加所谓的主教团。他们将被迫和其他人一样被关入鸟笼,并将成为其中的少数派。梵蒂冈的协议以统一中国教会为名,实际上意味着中国真正的教会被毁灭。
If I were a cartoonist I would draw the Holy Father on his knees offering the keys of the kingdom of heaven to President Xi Jinping and saying, “Please recognize me as the pope.”
如果我是漫画师,我会画下这样的画面,圣父跪在地上,向习近平主席交出天国的钥匙,说:“请承认我为教宗。”
And yet, to the underground bishops and priests of China, I can only say this: Please don’t start a revolution. They take away your churches? You can no longer officiate? Go home, and pray with your family. Till the soil. Wait for better times. Go back to the catacombs. Communism isn’t eternal.
然而,对于中国的地下主教和司铎,我只能这样说:请不要开始一场革命。他们带走你的教会?你不能继续履行职务了吗?回到家里去,和家人一起祷告吧。耕耘土壤。等待更好的时机。回到墓窖。共产主义不是永恒的。