The crush at the entrance to Shanghai Disneyland was particularly chaotic, even for China. Squeezed and jostled, I cursed under my breath.
即使是对中国来说,上海迪士尼乐园入口的拥挤程度都是格外惊人的。被推来挤去的我不禁小声咒骂了起来。
It didn’t seem like this was going to be the happiest place on earth if everyone kept trying to cut in line.
如果每个人都在试图插队,那这里看起来不会是世界上最快乐的地方。
But once inside the park, the crowds changed behavior. They were polite. Everyone waited patiently in long lines, respectfully observing rules like no spitting or allowing children to use bushes as toilets. They behaved like loyal Disney fans everywhere. As I reflected on my memories, my excitement both as child and as parent, I wondered what the Chinese, adults and children, were feeling and thinking. I pondered the larger questions of how culture and values are transmitted and internalized. How does indoctrination work?  
但一旦进入园内,这群人的举止就变了。他们彬彬有礼。每个人都耐心地排着长队,有礼貌地遵守着例如禁止吐痰或禁止让孩子把灌木丛当作厕所的规矩。他们表现得像其他地方的忠实迪士尼粉丝一样。在我回想自己作为孩子和父母的记忆和激动之情时,我好奇中国的成年人和小孩的感受和想法是什么。我思考着一个更大的问题:文化和价值是如何被传递和内化的。这种灌输是如何实现的?
Shanghai Disneyland, the first Disney theme park in mainland China, opened in 2016 after five years of construction. I visited the 963-acre park last year. And I had my family on my mind the whole time.
作为中国大陆的第一家迪士尼主题乐园,上海迪士尼在经过五年的建设后于2016年开业。去年,我去过这座占地963英亩的乐园。当时我一直想着我的家人。
Watching Chinese families frolic in Walt’s magic kingdom drew me back to the first time my parents took me to Disneyland in Anaheim — and the first time I introduced Disney to my own children. For my parents, Chinese immigrants to the United States, bringing the family to Disneyland was a partial fulfillment of the American dream.
看着中国家庭在沃尔特(Walt)的魔幻王国中嬉戏玩耍,让我想起了父母第一次带我到阿纳海姆迪士尼乐园——还有我第一次将迪士尼介绍给我自己的孩子时的情景。对我父母——移民到美国的中国人——来说,带家人去迪士尼乐园部分实现了美国梦。
When I began photographing in China in the early 1980s, Chinese people seemed wary of anything cultural. Most Chinese distrusted the Communist Party’s sanctioned art; it was not entertainment, it was propaganda. They knew it was all fake, but had little opportunity to express their own individual experiences. The government’s ham-handed attempts at culture pushed toward foreign influences, especially American.
上世纪80年代,当我开始在中国拍摄时,中国人似乎对任何与文化有关的事情都很谨慎小心。大多数中国人都不信任经过共产党认可的艺术;那不是娱乐,是宣传。他们知道那都是假的,但却没什么机会能表达自己的个人体验。政府在文化方面拙劣的尝试将人们推向了外国影响,尤其是美国的影响。
Like America in the 1950s, China is now undergoing a middle-class boom with similar aspirations; material wealth, leisure, travel, sophistication. For American baby boomers, visiting Disneyland became a necessary rite of passage. Globalization has helped make institutions like Disney popular in China. Will going to Disneyland now become a ritual for aspirational Chinese families?
像上世纪50年代的美国一样,中国如今的中产阶级壮大,他们带有类似的愿望:物质财富、消遣、旅行、精致。对美国婴儿潮一代来说,去迪士尼乐园成了成人礼的必要事项。全球化已经帮助让迪士尼这样的机构在中国变得受欢迎。去迪士尼乐园如今会成为有抱负的中国家庭的仪式吗?
When the park was still in the planning stages, the Chinese government insisted Shanghai Disneyland needed to be different from the other magic kingdoms, especially the parks in Asia, which are copies of their American counterparts. Iconic figures and structures, like Mickey and the Enchanted Castle, are of course featured. But Main Street — too Western — was replaced by Mickey Avenue, a mash-up of Western and Eastern architecture. The castle, the largest of the six Disney castles, accommodates all the princesses in the Disney universe — perhaps because only one princess would be too elitist for Communists. And although there are long lines for giant turkey legs, Chinese food remains the most popular fare. The result, as Disney’s C.E.O., Bob Iger, claims, is a park that is “authentically Disney, distinctly Chinese.”
当这座乐园还在规划阶段的时候,中国政府就坚持上海迪士尼乐园需要与其他魔幻王国、尤其是亚洲的乐园有所不同。亚洲的这些乐园都是美国版的复制品。当然会有例如米老鼠和魔法城堡这样的标志性角色和建筑。但小镇大街(Main Street)——太过西方——被米奇大街(Mickey Avenue)所取代。后者是西方和东方建筑的混合体。魔法城堡是六个迪士尼城堡中最大的,其中有迪士尼世界中所有的公主——可能因为只有一位公主的话,对共产党来说太过于提倡精英主义。并且,尽管大火鸡腿那里排起长龙,中国的食物仍是最受欢迎的。正如迪士尼首席执行官罗伯特·艾格(Robert Iger)所说,这座乐园是“原汁原味迪士尼,别具一格中国风”。
I asked several Chinese park-goers what their Disney experience was like. Were they assimilating Western values or simply having a good time? Older teenagers and adults claimed immunity to any ideology. But I am not so sure the youngest children were unaffected. Watching the pleasure and joy in their faces, girls in their princess costumes, convinced me that some of Walt’s values — American values — were leaking through.
我询问了几位去迪士尼的人体验如何。他们是否被西方价值观同化,还是仅仅度过了一段美好时光?年纪大一些的青少年和成年人表示不受任何意识形态的影响。但年纪最小的孩子是否不受影响,这我就不太确定了。看着他们脸上的愉悦和欢欣,还有那些穿着公主装的女孩们,我深信沃尔特的一些价值观——美国价值观——在渗透进来。