Sign up for NYT Chinese-language Morning Briefing.
This obituary is part of a series about people who have died in the coronavirus pandemic. Read about others here.
Yu Lihua, a writer whose nuanced portraits of overseas Chinese students and intellectuals in America captured the cultural displacement and identity crisis felt by many in the Chinese diaspora, died on April 30 at her home in Gaithersburg, Md. She was 90.
The cause was respiratory failure brought on by Covid-19, said her daughter Lena Sun, a reporter for The Washington Post who has been covering the coronavirus pandemic since January.
她的女儿、自1月起一直在报道新冠病毒疫情的《华盛顿邮报》记者孙晓凡(Lena Sun)说,她因Covid-19引起的呼吸衰竭去世。
Ms. Yu produced more than two dozen novels and short story collections over five decades, drawing on her experience as a Chinese émigré in postwar America. She was celebrated in the diaspora for giving voice to what she called the “rootless generation” — émigrés who had left for a better life but remained nostalgic for their homeland.
Her 1967 breakout novel, “Again the Palm Trees,” for example, tells the story of a Chinese man who graduates from a Taiwan university and goes to the United States for graduate school, where he struggles with loneliness and disillusionment. But when he goes back to Taiwan to rediscover his “Chineseness,” his sense of alienation is only intensified by his family’s glorification of life in the West, particularly in America.
It was a theme that resonated among Taiwan-educated Chinese émigrés at the time. Many had already been uprooted once before, compelled to flee to Taiwan in 1949 after Mao Zedong’s Communists defeated the Nationalists in the Chinese Civil War.
Having experienced both the highs and lows of immigrant life in America, Ms. Yu remained wary of what she saw as a tendency among Chinese to worship the West blindly. When students from mainland China began arriving in the United States in waves after the end of the Cultural Revolution in the late 1970s, she wrote an open letter to them that was published in The People’s Daily, the flagship newspaper of the Chinese Communist Party.
“Come here,” she wrote, “bring the wisdom of China that is by no means inferior, bring our unique diligence and resilience, and do not forget to bring self-respect for yourself and your nation. Stand up and come with your head held high.”
Lee-hwa Yu was born on Nov. 28, 1929, in Shanghai, though she gave 1931 as her birth year from an early age. As an adult she mostly used the first name Lihua.
The second of eight children, she grew up in the eastern city of Ningbo. Later, as China became mired in the second Sino-Japanese War (1937-45), the family moved around the country, and Ms. Yu attended school irregularly. In 1947, her father, Yu Sheng-feng, moved the family to Taiwan to take a job as a senior manager at a state-run sugar company there. Her mother, Liu Hsing Ch’ing, was a homemaker.
她在东部城市宁波长大,在八个孩子中排行老二。后来,由于中国在第二次抗日战争(1937-45)中沦陷,她随家人颠沛流离,学业时断时续。1947年,她的父亲於升峰举家迁往台湾,在一家国有制糖公司担任高级经理。她的母亲刘兴清(Liu Hsing Ch’ing,音)是家庭主妇。
After graduating from National Taiwan University in 1953 with a degree in history, Ms. Yu moved to California and attended journalism school at the University of California, Los Angeles. In 1956, the year she graduated, she won the prestigious Samuel Goldwyn Creative Writing Award for her English-language short story “Sorrow at the End of the Yangtze River,” about a young woman’s journey to find her lost father.
於梨华于1953年从国立台湾大学毕业,获得历史学学位后,赴美就读加大洛杉矶分校新闻学院。1956年,即她毕业的那一年,凭借英文短篇小说《扬子江头几多愁》获得了著名的塞缪尔·戈德温创意写作奖(Samuel Goldwyn Creative Writing Award),小说讲述了一名年轻女子的寻父历程。
Ms. Yu’s later attempts to publish stories in English, however, were rejected by American publishers. “They were only interested in stories that fit the pattern of Oriental exoticism — the feet-binding of women and the addiction of opium-smoking men,” she once recalled in an interview. “I didn’t want to write that stuff, I wanted to write about the struggle of Chinese immigrants in American society.” She went on to write mostly in Chinese for Chinese-language publishers.
Ms. Yu taught Chinese language and literature at what is now the University at Albany, the State University of New York, and was instrumental in starting exchange programs that brought many Chinese students to the campus. She retired from teaching in 1993.
於梨华曾在现在的纽约州立大学奥尔巴尼分校(University at Albany, State University of New York)教授汉语和文学,并协助启动了交流计划,带来了许多中国学生。她于1993年从教职退休。
In 2006, she was awarded an honorary doctorate from Middlebury College in Vermont. The citation called her “one of the five most influential Chinese-born women writers in the postwar era and the progenitor of the Chinese students’ overseas genre.”
2006年,佛蒙特州明德大学(Middlebury College)授予她荣誉博士学位。介绍称她为“战后最有影响力的五位华裔女性作家之一,以及华人留学生文学的先驱”。
Her first marriage, to Chih-Ree Sun, ended in divorce. In 1982 she married Vincent O’Leary, president of SUNY Albany. He died in 2011.
她的第一任丈夫是孙志锐,后离异。1982年,她与纽约州立大学奥尔巴尼分校校长文森特·奥利里(Vincent O’Leary)结婚。他于2011年去世
In addition to her daughter Ms. Sun, her survivors include a son, Eugene Sun; another daughter, Anna Sun; two stepdaughters, Beth O’Leary and Cathy Goldwyn; a sister, Meihua Yu; four brothers, Jack, Ben, Henry and Eddie Yu; 10 grandchildren and step-grandchildren; and two great-grandchildren.
除了女儿孙晓凡,她在世的家人还包括儿子尤金·孙(Eugene Sun,音),女儿安娜·孙(Anna Sun,音),继女贝丝·奥利里(Beth O’Leary)和凯西·戈得温(Cathy Goldwyn),妹妹於美华(音),四个兄弟杰克、本、亨利和艾迪,10个孙辈和继孙辈,以及两个曾孙。
Over the decades, Ms. Yu embraced the culture of her adopted home. She translated stories by Edith Wharton and Katherine Anne Porter into Chinese and developed a special passion for football and Broadway theater. But her devotion to China never faltered. She was adamant that her American-born children learn Chinese.
几十年来,於梨华热爱第二故乡的文化。她将伊迪丝·华顿(Edith Wharton)和凯瑟琳·安·波特(Katherine Anne Porter)的故事翻译成中文,并对橄榄球和百老汇剧院产生了特别的热情。但是她对中国的情感从未动摇。她坚持要她在美国出生的孩子学习汉语。
Though her work was sometimes politicized, and even briefly banned in Taiwan, Ms. Yu continued to visit mainland China. On one visit, in 1975, she was reunited with her sister, Meihua, who had stayed behind on the mainland when the family moved to Taiwan.
In a 2013 interview, Ms. Yu explained her relationship with her homeland by referring to the traditional Chinese idiom “fallen leaves return to their roots.”
“In the United States, my leaves may fall but they won’t return to their roots,” she said. “My roots are in China.”