I.M. Pei, who began his long career designing buildings for a New York real estate developer and ended it as one of the most revered architects in the world, died early Thursday at his home in Manhattan. He was 102.
周四凌晨,贝聿铭在曼哈顿家中去世,享年102岁。他从为纽约一家房地产开发商设计建筑起步,经过一段漫长的职业生涯,最终成为世界最受崇敬的建筑师之一。
His death was confirmed by his son Li Chung Pei, who is also an architect and known as Sandi. He said his father had recently celebrated his birthday with a family dinner.
他的儿子贝礼中证实了这一消息,他本人也是一名建筑师,又名Sandi(三弟)。他说父亲前不久还同家人聚餐庆生。
Best known for designing the East Building of the National Gallery of Art in Washington and the glass pyramid at the entrance to the Louvre in Paris, Pei was one of the few architects who were equally attractive to real estate developers, corporate chieftains and art museum boards (the third group, of course, often made up of members of the first two). And all his work — from his commercial skyscrapers to his art museums — represented a careful balance of the cutting edge and the conservative.
贝聿铭以华盛顿国家美术馆东馆和巴黎卢浮宫入口处的玻璃金字塔闻名,很少有建筑师可以像贝聿铭这样,在房地产开发商、企业领袖和美术馆董事中间具有同样的吸引力(当然,第三种人往往由前两种人组成)。他的所有作品——从商业摩天楼到艺术博物馆——都代表着前卫与保守之间的一种谨慎的平衡。
贝聿铭设计的华盛顿国家美术馆的附属建筑被称为东馆,贝聿铭为其增建的部分是由田纳西州的大块大理石建起的,周围是一个三角形的庭院。它看上去如此永恒而精卓,以至于成了少数能得到传统建筑爱好者垂青的现代主义建筑。
贝聿铭设计的华盛顿国家美术馆的附属建筑被称为东馆,贝聿铭为其增建的部分是由田纳西州的大块大理石建起的,周围是一个三角形的庭院。它看上去如此永恒而精卓,以至于成了少数能得到传统建筑爱好者垂青的现代主义建筑。 Carol M. Highsmith/Buyenlarge, via Getty Images
1978年,吉米·卡特总统在华盛顿为国家美术馆东馆落成发言。与他同行的还有馆长卡特·布朗。左起:贝聿铭、巴尼·梅隆,他的家人为这座建筑捐款、副总统沃尔特·F·蒙代尔的妻子琼·蒙代尔。
1978年,吉米·卡特总统在华盛顿为国家美术馆东馆落成发言。与他同行的还有馆长卡特·布朗。左起:贝聿铭、巴尼·梅隆,他的家人为这座建筑捐款、副总统沃尔特·F·蒙代尔的妻子琼·蒙代尔。 Associated Press
Pei remained a committed modernist, and while none of his buildings could ever be called old-fashioned or traditional, his particular brand of modernism — clean, reserved, sharp-edged and unapologetic in its use of simple geometries and its aspirations to monumentality — sometimes seemed to be a throwback, at least when compared with the latest architectural trends.
贝聿铭始终是忠诚的现代主义者,然而,他设计的建筑虽然都算不上旧式或传统,他特有的现代主义——干净、矜持、棱角分明、大量使用几何图形、并且怀着成为纪念建筑的抱负——有时似乎显得像是一种复古,至少在与最新的建筑趋势相比时是这样。
This hardly bothered him. What he valued most in architecture, he said, was that it "stand the test of time."
他对此丝毫不以为意。他说,他觉得建筑最重要的品质是“经得起时间的考验”。
Pei, who was born in China and moved to the United States in the 1930s, was hired by William Zeckendorf in 1948, shortly after he received his graduate degree in architecture from Harvard, to oversee the design of buildings produced by Zeckendorf's firm, Webb & Knapp.
贝聿铭出生于中国,1930年代移居美国。1948年,在哈佛大学获得建筑学硕士学位后不久,他受聘于威廉·泽肯多夫(William Zeckendorf),在泽肯多夫的公司齐氏威奈(Webb & Knapp)主持建筑设计工作。
国家美术馆项目帮助贝聿铭赢得了翻修巴黎卢浮宫的委托。这座70英尺高的玻璃金字塔令传统主义者感到惊骇,但公众最终喜欢上了它。
国家美术馆项目帮助贝聿铭赢得了翻修巴黎卢浮宫的委托。这座70英尺高的玻璃金字塔令传统主义者感到惊骇,但公众最终喜欢上了它。 Claude Paris/Associated Press
位于克利夫兰的摇滚名人堂是贝聿铭最令人意外的项目之一。
位于克利夫兰的摇滚名人堂是贝聿铭最令人意外的项目之一。 Mark Duncan/Associated Press
Pei quickly found himself engaged in the design of high-rise buildings, and he used that experience as a springboard to establish his own firm, I.M. Pei & Associates, which he set up in 1955 with Henry Cobb and Eason Leonard, the team he had assembled at Webb & Knapp.
贝聿铭很快开始从事高层建筑的设计,并将这段经历作为跳板,于1955年同他在齐氏威奈的团队成员亨利·科布(Henry Cobb)和伊森·莱纳德(Eason Leonard)一起,成立了自己的公司贝聿铭及合伙人建筑师事务所(I.M. Pei & Associates)。
In its early years, I.M. Pei & Associates mainly executed projects for Zeckendorf, including Kips Bay Plaza in New York, finished in 1963; Society Hill Towers in Philadelphia (1964); and Silver Towers in New York (1967). All were notable for their gridded concrete facades.
早年,事务所主要为泽肯多夫做项目,包括1963年竣工的纽约基普斯湾广场(Kips Plaza);1964年竣工的费城协会山塔(Society Hill Towers)和1967年竣工的纽约银塔(Silver Towers)。它们都以栅格形混凝土外立面而闻名。
The firm became fully independent from Webb & Knapp in 1960, by which time Pei was winning commissions for major projects that had nothing to do with Zeckendorf. Among these were the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado, completed in 1967, and the Everson Museum of Art in Syracuse, New York, and the Des Moines Art Center in Iowa, both finished in 1968.
1960年,贝聿铭事务所彻底从齐氏威奈独立出来,当时贝聿铭已经能拿到与泽肯多夫无关的大型项目。其中包括科罗拉多州博尔德的国家大气研究中心(National Center for Atmospheric Research),于1967年竣工;纽约州雪城的埃弗森艺术博物馆(Everson Museum of Art),以及艾奥瓦州的得梅因艺术中心(Des Moines Art Center),二者均于1968年竣工。
维多利亚港的天际线被香港岛沿岸的商业大厦照亮。中央的中银大厦是由贝聿铭设计的,看起来像一根棱角分明的竹笋,建成于1989年。
维多利亚港的天际线被香港岛沿岸的商业大厦照亮。中央的中银大厦是由贝聿铭设计的,看起来像一根棱角分明的竹笋,建成于1989年。 Anat Givon/Associated Press
贝聿铭并非设计肯尼迪图书馆和博物馆的不二之选,但1964年杰奎琳·肯尼迪到他的办公室拜访他时,被他的博学和优雅举止所倾倒,当场选中了他。在一次图书馆董事和受托人的会议上,贝聿铭与肯尼迪夫人和罗伯特•肯尼迪一起开怀大笑。
贝聿铭并非设计肯尼迪图书馆和博物馆的不二之选,但1964年杰奎琳·肯尼迪到他的办公室拜访他时,被他的博学和优雅举止所倾倒,当场选中了他。在一次图书馆董事和受托人的会议上,贝聿铭与肯尼迪夫人和罗伯特•肯尼迪一起开怀大笑。 Eddie Hausner/The New York Times
They were the first in a series of museums he designed that would come to include the East Building in Washington (1978) and the Louvre pyramid (1989) as well as the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame and Museum in Cleveland.
这是他设计的一系列博物馆中的第一批,其他博物馆包括华盛顿的国家美术馆东馆(1978年)和卢浮宫金字塔(1989年),以及克利夫兰的摇滚名人堂和博物馆(Rock & Roll Hall of Fame and Museum)。
The Cleveland project would not be Pei's last unlikely museum commission: His museum oeuvre would culminate in the call to design the Museum of Islamic Art, in Doha, Qatar, in 2008, a challenge Pei accepted with relish. A longtime collector of Western abstract expressionist art, he admitted to knowing little about Islamic art.
克利夫兰的项目看上去不太像是贝聿铭会做的博物馆,但这样的案例后面还有:2008年,卡塔尔多哈的伊斯兰艺术博物馆(Museum of Islamic Art)标志着他的博物馆设计达到了巅峰,贝聿铭兴致勃勃地接受了这个挑战。长期以来,他一直是西方抽象表现主义艺术的收藏家,他承认自己对伊斯兰艺术知之甚少。
As with the rock museum, Pei saw the Qatar commission as an opportunity to learn about a culture he did not claim to understand. He began his research by reading a biography of the Prophet Muhammad, and then commenced a tour of great Islamic architecture around the world.
和摇滚博物馆一样,贝聿铭认为卡塔尔的项目是一个机会,让他可以去学习自己并不了解的文化。他的研究始于阅读先知穆罕默德的传记,然后动身参观世界各地的伟大伊斯兰建筑。
1973年6月,工人们在波士顿的约翰·汉考克大厦用胶合板替换了大量被大风吹坏的玻璃。虽然问题出在玻璃上,而不是建筑本身,但这一事件对贝聿铭仍是一个重大挫折。
1973年6月,工人们在波士顿的约翰·汉考克大厦用胶合板替换了大量被大风吹坏的玻璃。虽然问题出在玻璃上,而不是建筑本身,但这一事件对贝聿铭仍是一个重大挫折。 Bill Chaplis/Associated Press
1970年,贝聿铭在曼哈顿麦迪逊大道的办公室里。
1970年,贝聿铭在曼哈顿麦迪逊大道的办公室里。 Ernie Sisto/The New York Times
Besides his many art museums, he designed concert halls, academic structures, hospitals, office towers and civic buildings like the Dallas City Hall, completed in 1977; the John F. Kennedy Library in Boston, finished in 1979; and the Guggenheim Pavilion of Mount Sinai Hospital in New York, finished in 1992.
除了众多艺术博物馆,他还设计过音乐厅、学术建筑、医院、办公楼和市政建筑,比如1977年竣工的达拉斯市政厅(Dallas City Hall);1979年竣工的波士顿约翰·F·肯尼迪图书馆(John F. Kennedy Library);以及1992年竣工的纽约西奈山医院的古根海姆大楼(Guggenheim Pavilion of Mount Sinai Hospital)。
(I.M. Pei & Associates eventually became I.M. Pei & Partners and later named Pei Cobb and Freed.)
(I.M. Pei & Associates后来更名为贝聿铭及伙伴I.M. Pei & Partners,后来又更名为贝-科布-弗利德[Pei Cobb and Freed]。)
In 1979, the year after the National Gallery was completed, Pei received the Gold Medal of the American Institute of Architects, its highest honor.
1979年,也就是国家美术馆落成后的第二年,贝聿铭获得了美国建筑师协会(American Institute of Architects)金奖,这是该协会的最高荣誉。
贝聿铭设计了一些大型的公共补贴项目,比如1963年的基普斯湾塔,这是曼哈顿的一栋大厦,他说它的网格状、现场浇筑的混凝土外墙证明,混凝土是一种可以接受的大型城市住宅材料。
贝聿铭设计了一些大型的公共补贴项目,比如1963年的基普斯湾塔,这是曼哈顿的一栋大厦,他说它的网格状、现场浇筑的混凝土外墙证明,混凝土是一种可以接受的大型城市住宅材料。 Bob Glass/The New York Times
贝聿铭最早的作品之一是纽约大学的银塔,属于他所说的“混凝土系列”。
贝聿铭最早的作品之一是纽约大学的银塔,属于他所说的“混凝土系列”。 Ozier Muhammad/The New York Times
At the same time that he was receiving plaudits in Washington, however, Pei was recovering from one of the most devastating setbacks any architect of his generation had faced anywhere: the nearly total failure of one of his most conspicuous projects, the 700-foot-tall John Hancock Tower at Copley Square in Boston.
在华盛顿得到美誉的同时,贝聿铭也在从他那一代建筑师所面临的最惨痛挫折中恢复过来:他最引人注目的项目之一——波士顿科普利广场700英尺高的约翰·汉考克大厦(John Hancock Tower)是个彻头彻尾的失败。
A thin, elegant slab of bluish glass designed by his partner Henry Cobb, it was nearing completion in 1973 when sheets of glass began popping out of its facade. They were quickly replaced with plywood, but before the source of the problem could be detected, nearly a third of the glass had fallen out, creating both a professional embarrassment and an enormous legal liability for Pei and his firm.
这座纤薄优雅的蓝色玻璃大厦由他的合作伙伴亨利·科布(Henry Cobb)设计,1973年接近完工时,表面的玻璃开始片片脱落。他们迅速换上了胶合板,但等到他们找到根本的问题所在时,将近三分之一的玻璃已经脱落,对贝聿铭和他的公司而言,这是专业上的奇耻大辱,也带来了巨大的法律责任。
The fault, experts believed, was not in the Pei design but in the glass itself: The Hancock Tower was one of the first high-rise buildings to use a new type of reflective, double-paned glass.
专家认为,问题不在于贝聿铭的设计,而在于玻璃本身:汉考克大厦是最早使用新型反光双层玻璃的高层建筑之一。
贝聿铭(右)和开发商小威廉·泽肯多夫与1989年在曼哈顿设计的丽晶酒店(现在是四季酒店)的模型。贝聿铭试图用它唤起人们对战前纽约摩天大楼的浪漫回忆。
贝聿铭(右)和开发商小威廉·泽肯多夫与1989年在曼哈顿设计的丽晶酒店(现在是四季酒店)的模型。贝聿铭试图用它唤起人们对战前纽约摩天大楼的浪漫回忆。 Fred R. Conrad/The New York Times
1974年,贝聿铭第一次回到中国,1980年代,他设计了北京郊外的香山酒店。(他说在他的作品中,这座建筑属于不是太成功的一例。)
1974年,贝聿铭第一次回到中国,1980年代,他设计了北京郊外的香山酒店。(他说在他的作品中,这座建筑属于不是太成功的一例。) Heung Shing Liu/Associated Press
The building ultimately won numerous awards, including the American Institute of Architects' 25-Year Award.
该建筑最终赢得了许多奖项,包括美国建筑师协会的25年大奖。
Ieoh Ming Pei was born in Canton (now Guangzhou) on April 26, 1917, the son of Tsuyee Pei, one of China's leading bankers.
贝聿铭于1917年4月26日出生在广州,父亲是中国著名银行家贝祖贻。
He was brought up in a well-to-do household that was steeped in both Chinese tradition — he spent summers in a country village, where his father's family had lived for more than 500 years, learning the rites of ancestor worship — and Western sophistication.
他在一个既浸淫在西方先进文明之中,也充满中国传统的富裕家庭长大——儿时他经常到父亲的家族生活了500多年的村庄避暑,了解祭祖的仪式。
1992年,贝聿铭开始与他的儿子贝建中和贝礼中共事,称为贝式建筑事务所。他们最引人注目的项目之一是多哈的伊斯兰艺术博物馆。
1992年,贝聿铭开始与他的儿子贝建中和贝礼中共事,称为贝式建筑事务所。他们最引人注目的项目之一是多哈的伊斯兰艺术博物馆。 Hassan Ammar/Associated Press
2006年,贝聿铭和妻子卢爱玲与首相让·克洛德·容克在卢森堡出席一个颁奖典礼。两人于1942年结婚,育有四个孩子。
2006年,贝聿铭和妻子卢爱玲与首相让·克洛德·容克在卢森堡出席一个颁奖典礼。两人于1942年结婚,育有四个孩子。 Harald Tittel/picture-alliance and dpa, via Associated Press
He decided to attend college in the United States. He received a bachelor of architecture degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1940.
后来他决定去美国上大学。1940年,他获得麻省理工学院(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)建筑学学士学位。
While he was at MIT, Pei met another Chinese national, Eileen Loo, who had come to the United States in 1938 to study art at Wellesley College in Massachusetts. The two married as soon as she graduated, in 1942. Eileen Pei began graduate work in landscape architecture at Harvard while her husband worked toward his advanced architecture degree, which he received in 1946.
在麻省理工读书时,贝聿铭结识了另一位中国人卢爱玲。她于1938年来到美国,在马萨诸塞州的卫斯理学院(Wellesley College)学习艺术。两人在1942年她毕业后很快结婚了。卢爱玲开始了在哈佛大学的景观园林研究生工作,贝聿铭则继续攻读进阶建筑学位,并于1946年获得该学位。
Pei never played down his connections to China. His children were all given Chinese names, and when he won the Pritzker Prize in 1983, widely viewed as the highest honor a living architect can receive, he used the $100,000 award to establish a scholarship fund for Chinese architecture students.
贝聿铭从不淡化他与中国的关系。他的孩子们都取了中文名字。1983年他赢得普利兹克奖(Pritzker Prize)时,用10万美元奖金为中国的建筑学生设立了一个奖学金。普利兹克奖被普遍视为在世建筑师能获得的最高荣誉。
2008年,贝聿铭在他位于曼哈顿萨顿广场的家中。儿时在上海,一座25层楼高的酒店的施工让他痴迷不已。“我忍不住透过小洞往里看,”他回忆道。“就在那时,我决定,我想做的是建造。”
2008年,贝聿铭在他位于曼哈顿萨顿广场的家中。儿时在上海,一座25层楼高的酒店的施工让他痴迷不已。“我忍不住透过小洞往里看,”他回忆道。“就在那时,我决定,我想做的是建造。” Tony Cenicola/The New York Times
His eldest son, T'ing Chung, an urban planner, died in 2003. His wife of 72 years, Eileen, died in 2014. In addition to his son Li Chung, who is known as Sandi, he is survived by another son, Chien Chung, also an architect, who is known as Didi; his daughter, Liane; and grandchildren and great-grandchildren.
他的长子贝定中是一名城市规划师,于2003年去世。与他结婚72年的妻子卢爱玲于2014年去世。他在世的亲人包括两个儿子,又名“Sandi”(三弟)的贝礼中和“Didi”(弟弟)贝建中,后者也是一名建筑师;女儿贝莲;以及孙辈和曾孙辈。