HONG KONG — Jin Yong, a literary giant of the Chinese-speaking world whose fantastical epic novels inspired countless film, television and video game adaptations and were read by generations of ethnic Chinese, died on Tuesday in Hong Kong. He was 94.
香港——华语世界的文学巨匠金庸于上周二在香港去世,享年94岁。一代代华人读过他的奇幻历史小说,这些小说也改编成不计其数的电影、电视剧和电子游戏。
His death, at the Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, was confirmed by Ming Pao, the prominent Hong Kong newspaper that Jin Yong helped establish and ran for decades. Chip Tsao, a writer and friend, said the cause of death was organ failure.
《明报》确认了他在香港养和医院离世,这份香港著名的报纸由金庸参与创办,已运营数十年。金庸的好友、作家陶杰(Chip Tsao)说,死因是器官衰竭。
Jin Yong, the pen name of Louis Cha, was one of the most widely read 20th-century writers in the Chinese language. The panoramic breadth and depth of the fictional universes he created have been compared to J. R. R. Tolkien’s “The Lord of the Rings” and have been studied as a topic known as “Jinology.”
金庸是查良镛的笔名,他是20世纪读者最多的华语作家之一。他创造的虚构世界有着全景式的开阔与纵深,被拿来与托尔金(J.R.R. Tolkien)的《指环王》相提并论,对其小说的研究被称为“金学”。
Jin Yong received his start as a novelist in the mid-1950s while working as a film critic and editor for The New Evening Post in Hong Kong, which was then a British crown colony. He had moved there in 1948 and lived there for most of his life.
金庸从1950年代中开始写小说,时任香港《新晚报》的影评人和编辑。那时候香港还是英国政府的直辖殖民地。他于1948年移居香港,在那里度过了一生的大部分时间。
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From 1955 to 1972, Jin Yong wrote 14 novels and novellas and one short story in the popular genre known as wuxia, which consisted mainly of swashbuckling martial arts adventures.
从1955年到1972年,金庸写了14部长篇、中篇和1部短篇武侠小说。武侠是流行的小说类型,主要讲述夸张的功夫冒险。
His first wuxia novel, “The Book and the Sword” (1955), drew its inspiration from a legend that held that the Manchu emperor Qianlong was in fact a Han Chinese who had been switched at birth. The novel was serialized in The New Evening Post and became an instant hit.
他第一部武侠小说《书剑恩仇录》(1955年)的灵感来自一个传说:满族皇帝乾隆实际上是个汉人,他在出生时被掉包。小说在《新晚报》连载,一炮而红。
By the time he began writing, the Chinese Communist Party had banned wuxia literature, calling it “decadent” and “feudal.” The ban reflected a centuries-old view of wuxia as a marginal genre within the Chinese literary tradition.
他开始写作的那个时候,中国共产党禁止了武侠文学,称之为“腐朽”“封建”。禁令也反映出中国文学传统的一个古老观点:武侠是不入流的类型。
But in Hong Kong and other parts of the Chinese diaspora, Jin Yong’s novels helped spearhead a new wave of martial arts fiction in the 1950s and ‘60s.
但是在香港和其他散居海外的华人当中,金庸的小说在五六十年代掀起了一股新的武侠小说热潮。
Jin Yong elevated what had been a rather formulaic genre by blending in poetry, history and fantasy to create hundreds of vivid characters who travel through a mirror underworld that operates according to its own laws and code of ethics.
通过融合诗歌、历史和幻想,金庸拔高了这个已经相当套路化的小说类型,创造出几百个生动人物,穿行在一个依照自身法则和道德规范运行而又映射现实的俗世。
In tales of love, chivalry, friendship and filial piety, his characters are flawed, with complex emotional histories, making them all the more appealing.
在这些讲述爱情、侠义、友情和孝道的故事里,他的诸多人物并不完美,有着错综的情感往事,这只让他们更为动人。
“Writing about heroes was very easy,” Jin Yong said in a 2012 interview. “But as I got older I learned that these big heroes actually had another, more contemptible side to them, a side that was not shown to others.”
“写英雄很容易,”金庸在2012年的一次采访中说。“但年纪慢慢大了之后……这个大英雄后面,其实有他自己卑鄙的一方面,有他见不得人的一方面。”
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Translated into many languages, his books have sold tens of millions of copies, fueling a sprawling industry of film, television and video game adaptations.
他的作品以多种语言出版,销量达数千万册,带来影视和电子游戏的大量改编。
Jin Yong used martial arts fiction as a vehicle to talk about Chinese history and traditional culture, forging his own fictional vernacular that drew heavily on classical expressions. His stories were often set at pivotal moments in Chinese history, like the rise and fall of dynasties. They made reference to Confucian, Buddhist and Taoist ideas, and positioned martial arts as an integral part of Chinese culture, alongside traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture and calligraphy.
金庸用武侠小说为载体谈论中国历史和传统文化,大量借鉴古典表达,锻造出虚构的白话口语。他的故事经常发生在中国历史的关键时刻,比如改朝换代。故事时常提及儒释道的思想,并将武术与中医、针灸和书法并列,作为中国文化的组成部分。
Jin Yong took a “marginal, even disreputable, form of popular fiction and made it both a vehicle for serious literary expression and something that appealed to Chinese readers around the globe,” John Christopher Hamm, an associate professor of Asian languages and literature at the University of Washington, said in a telephone interview.
华盛顿大学亚洲语言文学副教授韩倚松(John Christopher Hamm)在接受电话采访时说,金庸拾起了一种“不入流的,甚至名声不好的通俗小说形式,使其既成为严肃文学表达的载体,又吸引了全球华人读者”。
Following the early success of his novels, Jin Yong established his own newspaper, Ming Pao Daily News, in Hong Kong in 1959. Soon he was publishing installments of his novels while writing daily social commentaries about the horrors of Mao Zedong’s China.
早期的小说取得成功之后,金庸1959年在香港创办了自己的报纸《明报》。很快他就一边连载他的小说,一边每天撰写毛泽东时代中国各种骇人事件的社评。
It was a subject he was intimately familiar with: In 1951, his father had been labeled a “class enemy” and was executed by the Communists.
这个主题他是有切身体会的:1951年,他父亲被打成“阶级敌人”,遭共产党处决。
In 1981, as China was beginning to open up economically and politically, Jin Yong traveled to Beijing to meet with Deng Xiaoping, Mao’s successor. Deng confessed that he was an avid fan of Jin Yong’s books.
1981年中国开始了经济和政治上的开放,金庸到北京会见了毛的继任者邓小平。邓小平承认自己是金庸小说的忠实读者。
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Not long afterward, China lifted its ban on Jin Yong’s novels. At the time, many young Chinese were eager to read something other than the socialist propaganda they had become accustomed to under Mao.
之后不久,中国大陆撤销了金庸小说的禁令。这时候正值许多中国年轻人渴望读些跟司空见惯的毛时代社会主义宣传品不一样的东西。
“Reading his novels opened our vision,” Liu Jianmei, a professor of contemporary Chinese literature at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, said in a telephone interview. “His way of thinking was so different from what was being cultivated in mainland China at the time. He helped us think beyond right and wrong, good and bad.”
“读他的小说打开了我们的眼界,”香港科技大学当代中国文学教授刘剑梅在电话采访中说。“他的思维方式与当时中国大陆培养的那种方式如此不同。他帮助我们跳出是与非、好与坏去思考。”
In 1985, Jin Yong was appointed to a political committee charged with drafting Hong Kong’s Basic Law, the mini-constitution that would govern that semiautonomous city once Britain handed it over, ending colonial rule. He drew criticism for backing a conservative proposal to select the city’s leader without universal suffrage.
1985年,金庸被任命为负责起草香港《基本法》的政治委员会成员。这部小型宪法将在英国结束殖民统治、移交香港主权后管理这个半自治城市。他支持一项保守建议,不以普选方式选出香港领导人,招致批评。
Jin Yong’s initial optimism about China’s political opening was dashed by the government’s bloody crackdown on the student-led democracy movement in Tiananmen Square in 1989.
1989年,中国政府血腥镇压天安门广场上的学生民主运动,金庸最初对中国政治开放的乐观态度破灭了。
He resigned from the committee in protest. In a tearful interview, he said, “Students’ peaceful petitions should never be suppressed by military force.”
他从基本法起草委员会辞职以示抗议。他在一次流下泪水的采访中说:“学生的和平请愿绝不应该用军人镇压。”
Cha Leung-yung was born the second of seven children on March 10, 1924, in Haining, in the central coastal province of Zhejiang. His father, Zha Shuqing, was an educated landlord. His mother, Xu Lu, was from a wealthy business family.
查良镛1924年3月10日出生在浙江海宁,是七个孩子中的老二。他的父亲查枢卿是一位受过教育的地主。他的母亲徐禄出自富裕的商贾人家。
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Jin Yong graduated from Soochow University’s law school in 1948. By then he had begun working as a journalist and translator for the newspaper Ta Kung Pao in Shanghai. In 1948 he moved with the newspaper to Hong Kong, which would become his home for the next seven decades.
金庸1948年毕业于东吴大学法学院。此后他开始担任上海《大公报》的记者和翻译。1948年,他随报社迁至香港,这里成为他后来70年的家。
He retired from writing novels in 1972. He stepped down as chairman of the Ming Pao Enterprise Corporation in 1993.
1972年,他封笔不再写小说。1993年,他辞去明报企业董事局主席的职务。
Jin Yong is survived by his third wife, Lam Lok Yi, and his children from his second marriage: a son, Andrew, and two daughters, Grace and Edna.
金庸的在世亲人还有第三任妻子林乐怡,以及他与第二任妻子的孩子:儿子查传倜和两个女儿查传诗、查传讷。
This year, the first installment of Jin Yong’s popular trilogy, “Legends of the Condor Heroes,” was translated into English, by Anna Holmwood.
今年,金庸备受欢迎的三部曲中的第一部《射雕英雄传》由郝玉青(Anna Holmwood)译成了英文。
Among readers of original Chinese versions, Jin Yong had no shortage of prominent fans. They include Jack Ma, the chairman of Alibaba, who at one point gave employees nicknames drawn from characters in the novels.
金庸中文原版小说的读者当中不乏显赫的粉丝。阿里巴巴集团董事长马云就是其一,他曾用金庸小说中人物的名字给手下员工当绰号。