Lois Wheeler Snow, a former actress and writer whose criticism of human rights abuses in China was amplified by the legacy of her husband, the American journalist Edgar Snow, the author of the landmark book “Red Star Over China,” died on April 3 at a hospital in Nyon, Switzerland. She was 97.

前演员、作家洛伊斯·惠勒·斯诺(Lois Wheeler Snow)于4月3日在瑞士尼翁一家医院去世,享年97岁。斯诺生前对中国的人权侵犯问题的诸多批评,在其丈夫、著有划时代作品《红星照耀中国》的美国记者埃德加·斯诺(Edgar Snow)的传奇助推下显得愈发有力。

Her daughter, Sian Snow, confirmed the death. Her mother had lived in Switzerland since 1959.

其女西恩·斯诺(Sian Snow)证实了这一消息。她的母亲自1959年起一直生活在瑞士。

Lois Wheeler was an up-and-coming Broadway actress in 1949 when she married Mr. Snow, who was best known for “Red Star Over China” (1937), a sympathetic portrayal of China’s struggling young Communist revolutionaries. It introduced many Western readers to Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai and others who would go on to lead the People’s Republic of China.

1949年与埃德加·斯诺结婚时,洛伊斯·惠勒还是百老汇一名崭露头角的演员。她的丈夫因《红星照耀中国》(Red Star Over China,1937)而闻名于世,这本书以赞同的视角描绘了年轻的中国共产主义革命者的斗争,向许多西方读者介绍了毛泽东、周恩来,以及其他随后领导了中华人民共和国的人物。

“China became part of my life when I met and married Edgar Snow,” Ms. Snow wrote in an essay in 2011.

“在和埃德加·斯诺相识、结婚后,中国就成为我生命的一部分,”斯诺在2011年的篇文章中写道。

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On her first visit to that country, in 1970, she and her husband were treated like royalty. She attended a Ping-Pong match with Zhou, the first premier of the People’s Republic; dined with Soong Ching-ling, the wife of Sun Yat-sen; and, notably, stood with her husband alongside Mao on the Tiananmen rostrum during the National Day Parade — a gesture later understood to be a signal from Mao to President Richard M. Nixon that Beijing was willing to reopen ties with Washington.

1970年首次到访这个国家时,她和丈夫得到了帝王般的待遇。人民共和国首任总理周恩来和她一起观看乒乓球赛,与孙中山的妻子宋庆龄共进晚餐,尤其值得注意的还有,在国庆游行时,她和她的丈夫与毛泽东并肩站在了天安门城楼上——后来,人们才将这一姿态理解为毛泽东向理查德·M·尼克松(Richard M. Nixon)总统发出信号,表示愿与华盛顿重启关系。

When Mr. Snow’s health began to deteriorate in the early 1970s, Mao and Zhou sent a team of three doctors, four nurses and an interpreter to Switzerland, where the couple were living by then. Even after her husband died in 1972, Ms. Snow remained on friendly terms with Chinese leaders and continued to visit China frequently.

七十年代初,埃德加·斯诺的健康状况开始恶化,毛泽东和周恩来派出一只由三名医生、四名护士和一名译员组成的团队前往瑞士,那是他们夫妻当时生活的地方。即使在丈夫于1972年去世后,斯诺也与中国领导人保持着友好关系,频频访问中国。

“I was a very privileged person and was driven around in Red Flag limousines with lace curtains,” Ms. Snow said in an interview with Time Asia in 2000. “I was able to meet a lot of people just because I was Mrs. Edgar Snow.”

“我当时是个享有特权的人,出行坐的是有花边窗帘的红旗豪华轿车,”斯诺在2000年接受《时代》亚洲版(Time Asia)采访时说。“我能见到这么多人,就只是因为我是埃德加·斯诺夫人。”

But what began as a warm and vibrant friendship with Chinese officials soured following the government’s violent suppression of Tiananmen Square protesters in 1989, which left hundreds of civilians dead. Afterward, Ms. Snow began to see the Communist Party — the party that she and her husband had so ardently supported over the years — in a different light.

但是,在中国政府1989年暴力镇压天安门抗议者、导致成百上千的平民死亡之后,与中国官员的这段曾经热情而充满活力的友谊开始恶化。之后,斯诺开始以一种不同的眼光来看待共产党——一个她和她的丈夫多年来一直热忱支持的政党。

1949年与斯诺结婚时,洛伊斯·惠勒还是百老汇一名崭露头角的演员。她说:“在和埃德加·斯诺相识、结婚后,中国就成为我生命的一部分。”
1949年与斯诺结婚时,洛伊斯·惠勒还是百老汇一名崭露头角的演员。她说:“在和埃德加·斯诺相识、结婚后,中国就成为我生命的一部分。”

“It just woke me up,” she said in the Time Asia interview. “You’d see people being dragged off with bloody faces, for instance. And little by little in my head grew the knowledge that the families of these people were being persecuted in some way.”

“这让我清醒了过来,”她在《时代》亚洲版的采访中说。“比如你会看到脸上满是血的人被拖走。我逐渐了解到,这些人的家庭是在被以某种方式迫害的。”

Ms. Snow immediately condemned the crackdown and vowed never to return to China. Over the years, she wrote letters to top Chinese leaders like Deng Xiaoping and Zhu Rongji, hoping her husband’s stature in China could help call attention to the plight of the families affected by the Tiananmen crackdown.

斯诺立即谴责了那次镇压,并发誓再也不会重回中国。多年来,她都会给邓小平、朱镕基等中国高层领导人写信,希望借助她丈夫在中国的声望,呼吁人们去关注被天安门镇压影响的家庭的困境。

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“This is all outside my jurisdiction,” she once said, “but I do, through fortune, bear the name of Edgar Snow, and I feel a certain responsibility about the use of the name in China.”

“这都不是我该管的,”她曾经这么说,“但我管了,借由命运,承着埃德加·斯诺之名,我觉得有责任在中国利用这个名字。”

In 2000, Ms. Snow, then 79, returned to Beijing one last time in the hope of passing on a donation to a prominent activist whose son had been killed during the Tiananmen turmoil.

2000年,时年79岁的斯诺最后一次回到北京,希望能把一笔捐款转交给一位知名活动人士,此人的儿子在天安门事件中丧生。

斯诺和丈夫及两个孩子在1955年的一张全家福。
斯诺和丈夫及两个孩子在1955年的一张全家福。

That visit to China, her last, could not have been more different from her first to the country 30 years earlier. She and her son, Christopher, were subject to surveillance while visiting the cemetery at Peking University, where half of her husband’s ashes were buried.

那趟中国之旅,是她的最后一次,和她30年前的第一次到访有着天壤之别。她和儿子克里斯托弗前往葬着丈夫一半骨灰的北京大学墓园,全过程处在监控之下

When they tried to meet with the activist Ding Zilin, whose teenage son had been killed in the Tiananmen protests, they were surrounded at the gate of People’s University in Beijing, where Ms. Ding lived, by at least two dozen plainclothes police officers, filmed surreptitiously and prevented from entering.

活动人士丁子霖十几岁的儿子在天安门抗议活动中丧生。当他们试图与住在中国人民大学的丁子霖见面时,至少有二十多名便衣警察将他们包围,秘密拍摄,并禁止他们进入。

Ms. Ding later recalled saying to the police who had blocked the meeting: “How can you be so cruel? She’s an old friend of China.”

丁子霖后来回忆说,她对阻止她们见面的警方说:“你们怎么能这么残忍?她是中国的老朋友。”

Lois Wheeler was born in Stockton, Calif., on July 12, 1920, to Raymond Joseph Wheeler, a mayor of Stockton, and the former Katherine Kurtz, a homemaker. After studying drama at the College of the Pacific (now the University of the Pacific) in her hometown, Ms. Snow moved to New York City, where she studied at the Neighborhood Playhouse and became a founding member of the Actors Studio.

洛伊斯·惠勒1920年7月12日出生于加利福尼亚州斯托克顿,父亲是斯托克顿市市长雷蒙德·约瑟夫·惠勒(Raymond Joseph Wheeler),母亲是家庭主妇,婚前叫凯瑟琳·库尔茨(Katherine Kurtz)。在家乡的太平洋学院(College of the Pacific,即现在的太平洋大学)学习了戏剧表演后,斯诺搬到了纽约市。在那里,她在社区剧院(Neighborhood Playhouse)学习,并成为演员工作室(Actors Studio)的创始成员。

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As a young actress, Ms. Snow appeared in several Broadway plays, including “The Fifth Season” and the original production of Arthur Miller’s “All My Sons.” She met Mr. Snow, who was then married to Helen Foster Snow, at a Russian War Relief party in New York in 1946. (Mr. Snow’s first marriage ended in divorce.)

作为一名年轻的演员,斯诺参演了多部百老汇剧目,包括《第五季》(The Fifth Season)和亚瑟·米勒(Arthur Miller)的《吾子吾弟》(All My Sons)的首演版。1946年,她在俄罗斯战争救援(Russian War Relief)在纽约举行的一场聚会上与埃德加·斯诺相识。当时,埃德加·斯诺的妻子是海伦·福斯特·斯诺(Helen Foster Snow)。(他的第一段婚姻以离婚告终。)

Not long after Mr. Snow and Ms. Wheeler married, in 1949, they found themselves effectively blacklisted from working, suspected of Communist ties as the McCarthy era began to unfold. They moved with their two children, Christopher and Sian, to Switzerland, settling near Geneva, in 1959.

两人于1949年结婚。不久后,随着麦卡锡时代开始到来,他们发现自己因为涉嫌通共而被列入了黑名单,得不到工作机会。1959年,他们带着两个孩子克里斯托弗和西恩移居瑞士,在日内瓦附近定居。

Christopher died in 2008. Besides her daughter, Sian, Ms. Snow is survived by two grandchildren.

克里斯托弗于2008年去世。除女儿西恩外,斯诺身后还有两个孙辈。

Though her first impressions of China were largely shaped by her husband, in later years Ms. Snow needed no help in forming her own opinions about the country that had so influenced her life.

尽管她对中国的第一印象主要受她丈夫的影响,但晚年,对这个深深影响了自己一生的国家,斯诺形成了自己的独立看法。

“It’s hard even for me to realize that I went for such a long time without being aware of the transgressions of human rights, that it took Tiananmen to wake me up,” she said in an interview with The New York Times in 2000. “There it was on television, in the living room, in front of your face. The kids, my children, were with me. We were screaming. It was like being there.”

“即使是我也很难意识到,那么长时间以来,我一直不知道那些侵犯人权的行为,要到天安门事件才让我清醒过来,”她在2000年接受《纽约时报》采访时说。“它就在电视上,在客厅里,在你面前。孩子们,我的子女,都在我身边。我们大叫起来。就像在现场一样。”