BEIJING — In the unpolished video that appeared on state television one October morning in 2015, Wang Yu, one of China’s most prominent lawyers, denounces her own son.

北京——2015年10月的一个上午,中国最著名的律师之一王宇在国家电视台一段未剪辑的视频中谴责自己的儿子。

While she was herself under arrest, the young man had been detained after leaving the country without permission or the proper papers. He first flew to the southern province of Yunnan and then rode on the back of a motorcycle into Myanmar, his movements captured on closed circuit cameras.

她本人被捕时,她的儿子已经因为未经允许或在未取得适当文件的情况下离开中国而被拘留。他先是坐飞机到达中国南部的云南省,然后搭乘摩托车进入缅甸,他的行为被闭路摄像机拍到了。

“I strongly condemn this type of behavior,” Ms. Wang says in a monotone, sitting inside a featureless room. “This kind of action is very risky and is illegal.”

“我是对这种行为强烈谴责的,”王宇在一个毫无特征的房间里用平淡的语气说,“这种方式也非常危险,也是非法的。”

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It was all a lie, as her colleagues suspected when the video first aired.

这段视频第一次播出时,她的同事们已经猜到了,这一切都是谎言。

Ms. Wang’s videotaped contrition was merely an example of how the Chinese authorities routinely coerce detainees into making statements that serve the government’s propaganda needs.

王宇的悔罪录像只是一个例子,表明中国当局经常胁迫被拘留者做出符合政府宣传需要的声明。

A human rights organization, Safeguard Defenders, has now detailed her case and others like it to draw attention to a practice it says violates fundamental due process and international legal standards — and to call out the media organizations in China and in Hong Kong that abet the practice by circulating the “confessions” and in some cases even participating in them.

现在,人权组织“保护卫士”(Safeguard Defenders)详细讲述了她的案件以及其他类似的案件,提醒人们关注这种在它看来违反基本正当法律程序和国际法律标准的行为,指责中国和香港的媒体机构助长这种行为,传播“认罪视频”,有时甚至参与它的制作。

Critics have long assumed these televised acts of confession and contrition were frauds. The organization’s report, released this week, analyzes 45 high-profile examples recorded and broadcast between July 2013 and February 2018.

长期以来,批评人士一直认为,电视上播出的这些认罪和悔过视频都是在欺骗。“保护卫士”本周发布的报告分析了2013年7月至2018年2月录制和播出的45个引人注目的案例。

More than half of them involved lawyers, journalists and others involved in promoting human rights in China. Many were shown “confessing” even though the formal legal proceedings against them had not yet begun, ignoring the presumption of innocence that is embedded even in Chinese law.

其中超过半数的人是律师和记者等参与促进中国人权的人士。其中很多人在视频中“认罪”时,正式的法律程序还没开始,等于无视就连中国法律也承认的无罪推定原则。

In 12 cases, the organization’s researchers interviewed those who were forced to record confessions, documenting in detail how the videos were carefully scripted and then broadcast.

在12个案例中,该组织的研究人员采访了那些被迫拍摄认罪视频的人,详细记录了这些视频是如何精心编排并播出的。

What follows are examples of how the security forces use the confessions to demonstrate their raw jurisdictional power and to score propaganda points in an effort to deflect criticism at home and abroad. They ultimately show how powerless detainees are once they are swept into the Chinese legal system.

从下面这些例子中可以看出,安全部门如何通过认罪视频来展示它强大的司法权力,强调宣传要点,努力转移国内外的批评。它们最终展示出,被拘留者在被卷入中国的法律系统后是多么无能为力。

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“I don’t expect everyone to understand,” Ms. Wang said, explaining the agonizing decision she made to agree to the interrogators’ demands in exchange for her release. “I just want to say that my son is everything to me. Perhaps I had no other choice.”

“我并不期望每个人都能理解我,”王宇在讲述自己为何做出那个痛苦的决定时说。为了换取释放,她同意了审讯者的要求。“我只想说,儿子就是我的一切。也许我别无选择。”

Confessions send a message

通过认罪视频传递信息

Lam Wing-kee was the manager of Causeway Bay Books in Hong Kong, a store that sold titles that displeased the authorities in Beijing. In 2015, he was arrested as he crossed the border from Hong Kong to the mainland, swept up in a series of cases against booksellers that continue to reverberate in Hong Kong, the special administrative region of China feeling the heavy hand of the central government.

林荣基(Lam Wing-kee)是香港铜锣湾书店(Causeway Bay Books)的经理,这家书店销售令北京当局不快的书籍。2015年,他从香港前往内地通过边检时被捕,卷入了一系列针对书商的案件,这些案件继续在香港引起反响。香港是中国的特别行政区,正承受着中央政府的沉重压力。

Mr. Lam reappeared in February 2016 on Chinese television, where he “confessed” that his books — which included titillating descriptions of the private lives of Chinese leaders — were sensationalized and misleading.

2016年2月,林荣基再次在中国的电视节目中露面,“承认”自己销售的那些书耸人听闻,具有误导性,有些书中包括对中国领导人私生活的露骨描述。

In the report, Mr. Lam told researchers that he had to make a dozen recordings before those holding him were satisfied. He said they were made to seem like interviews and, in one case, a court proceeding, with a police officer posing as a witness. When Mr. Lam was released, he held an explosive news conference in Hong Kong, after which the authorities broadcast more recordings in an effort to embarrass him further.

林荣基在这份报告中向研究人员表示,他录了十几遍,那些拘留者才满意。他还说,视频拍得像是在接受采访,还有一个是假装在庭审,一名警察假扮成证人。林荣基获释后,在香港举行了一场爆炸性的新闻发布会,之后,当局为了让他更难堪,播放了更多的视频。

Confessions are “much more than simple admissions of guilt,” the report said. They are meant as warnings to others who would challenge the state, and to discredit accusations of abuses of power by the Communist Party or the state security organs.

该报告称,认罪“并不只是简单地承认有罪”。它们旨在警告其他可能会挑战政府的人,证明对中国共产党或中国国家安全机关滥用权力的指控是没有根据的。

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“China’s televised confessions are reminiscent of violent and degrading episodes of political persecution from history,” the report added, noting Stalin’s show trials and the public shaming sessions that were characteristic of China’s Cultural Revolution.

该报告还表示,“中国的电视认罪让人想起了历史上暴力的、侮辱人格的政治迫害”,还提到了斯大林的公审和公开羞辱,那也是中国文化大革命的特点。

Deflecting international criticism

转移国际社会的批评

Gui Minhai, a Swedish citizen, was another of the booksellers caught up in the sweep in 2015. In his case, he was abducted from his vacation home in Thailand and returned to China. There he faced charges under mysterious circumstances that provoked international condemnation and the involvement of the government of Sweden.

瑞典公民桂民海是另一位被卷入2015年案件的书商。他是在泰国自己的度假屋被绑架后带回中国的。他在神秘的情况下遭到指控,引起了国际社会的谴责和瑞典政府的介入。

Mr. Gui has since appeared in three recorded videos. In the first, he declared that he had returned voluntarily, which his relatives and colleagues strongly dispute.

后来,桂民海出现在三段录制的视频中。在第一段视频中,他宣称自己是自愿回到中国,他的家属和同事对此表示严重怀疑。

The latest, shown in February, came after a bizarre turn of events. Mr. Gui, who was released from prison last year but kept under close scrutiny in the city of Ningbo, near Shanghai, was arrested in January aboard a train traveling to Beijing while he was accompanied by Swedish diplomats, who were ostensibly escorting him to medical treatment.

最近的一段视频是2月份公布的,之前,该事件发生了一个奇怪的转折。去年,桂民海被释放后,在上海附近的宁波市受到密切监视。今年1月,他在几名瑞典外交官的陪同下踏上前往北京的火车时被捕,那些外交官表面上是护送他去接受治疗的。

In a video broadcast on state television, Mr. Gui appeared tense, often pausing or repeating himself, saying that the Swedes were using him as a pawn. He was also shown being interviewed by the media in Hong Kong. The video here appeared on the website of The South China Morning Post. The newspaper faced criticism for its role but later said the interview was done without preconditions, though with the cooperation of the authorities.

在国家电视台播放的视频中,桂民海显得很紧张,经常停顿或重复自己的话,称那些瑞典人是在利用他。视频还展示他接受香港媒体的采访。这段视频出现在《南华早报》的网站上。该报因在该事件中扮演的角色而遭到批评,但它后来表示,采访是在没有前提条件的情况下进行的,不过获得了当局的配合。

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Mr. Gui’s daughter, Angela, who has campaigned for his release, told the report’s researchers that it was painful to watch. “It’s the kind of thing nobody should ever have to experience,” she said, “so there shouldn’t be words for it.”

桂民海的女儿安杰拉(Angela)一直在为他的获释奔走,她向该报告的研究人员表示,看着那段视频,她很痛苦。“这是谁都不该经历的事,”她说,“所以无法用言语形容。”