HONG KONG——The Chinese electronics giant Huawei sued the United States government on Wednesday, arguing that it had been unfairly and incorrectly banned as a security threat.
香港——中国电子巨头华为周三对美国政府提起诉讼,称自己一直被不公正地、错误地当作安全威胁遭到禁止。
The lawsuit will force the government to make its case against the company more public, but it could also leave Huawei vulnerable to deeper scrutiny of its business practices and relationship with the Chinese government.
这起诉讼将迫使美国政府更公开地阐明对这家公司的指控,但也可能使华为易于受到对其商业行为及其同中国政府关系的进一步调查。
The United States has argued that Huawei poses a risk because its equipment could be used by the Chinese authorities to spy on communications and disrupt telecommunications networks. That position has led major wireless carriers in the United States to avoid Huawei’s equipment.
美国认为华为构成威胁,因为它的设备可被中国当局用于通信间谍活动,并破坏电信网络。这一立场已导致美国主要的无线运营商避免使用华为设备。
Huawei denies the allegations and says the lawsuit is meant to prove it does not engage in such practices. The company’s plans to file the lawsuit were first reported Monday by The New York Times.
华为否认这些指控,称这起诉讼旨在证明它不参与这些行为。《纽约时报》周一率先报道了华为提起诉讼的计划。
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“The U.S. Congress has repeatedly failed to produce any evidence to support its restrictions on Huawei products,” Guo Ping, Huawei’s rotating chairman, said in a statement announcing the filing of the lawsuit. “We are compelled to take this legal action as a proper and last resort.”
“美国国会一直未能提供任何证据来支持其对华为产品的限制,”华为轮值董事长郭平在宣布起诉计划的声明中说。“采取法律行动是我们不得已而为之的最后选择。”
The lawsuit, which was filed in a United States District Court in Plano, Tex., where Huawei has its American headquarters, argues that part of the 2019 National Defense Authorization Act is unconstitutional because it singles out Huawei. The act bans government agencies from contracting with Huawei or companies that use the company’s equipment.
华为是在其美国总部所在地德克萨斯州普莱诺的联邦地区法院提起诉讼。诉讼称2019年《国防授权法案》(National Defense Authorization Act)的部分条款违宪,因为它是仅针对华为的。该法案禁止政府机构与华为或使用华为设备的公司签订合同。
Huawei, China’s biggest maker of telecommunications equipment, has been under pressure for months by the United States authorities. Now, it’s striking back. The suit is part of a markedly aggressive legal and public relations offensive that Huawei has recently mounted to push back against spying accusations.
中国最大的电信设备制造商华为近几个月来一直处于美国当局的巨大压力之下。现在,它开始反击了。这起诉讼是华为最近为反击间谍指控发起的一场声势极其浩大的法律和公关攻势的一部分。
During a news briefing broadcast on an official Huawei feed on Twitter, Mr. Guo pulled no punches.
在华为的官方Twitter账号播出的新闻发布会上,郭平直言不讳。
“The U.S. government has long branded Huawei as a threat, it has hacked our service and stolen our emails and source code,” he said, referring to National Security Agency documents provided by the former contractor Edward J. Snowden that showed the agency had pried its way into Huawei’s systems.
“美国政府一直污蔑华为是威胁,还攻击我们的服务器,窃取邮件和源代码,”他说,他指的是美国国家安全局(National Security Agency)前承包商雇员爱德华·J·斯诺登(Edward J. Snowden)提供的文件,文件显示该机构曾侵入华为的系统。
“Still, the U.S. government is sparing no effort to smear the company and mislead the public about Huawei,” he added. The briefing, streamed on Twitter — an American internet platform blocked in China — reached more than two million people.
“而且,美国竭力诋毁华为、影响公众舆论,”他补充说。有200多万人观看了这个在Twitter上直播的新闻发布会。Twitter是一个美国互联网平台,在中国被屏蔽。
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In December, Meng Wanzhou, the daughter of Huawei’s founder and the chief financial officer of the company, was detained in Canada at the behest of the United States, which is seeking to extradite her.
12月份,华为创始人的女儿、公司首席财务官孟晚舟应美国的要求在加拿大被捕,美国在寻求将她引渡。
Her father, Ren Zhengfei, the company’s founder, has since rejected the claims against his daughter and said that he would wait to see if President Trump would intervene in the case. Ms. Meng has been in court this week in Vancouver, British Columbia, as part of an extradition hearing.
她的父亲、公司创始人任正非此后否认了针对女儿的说法,并表示他会保持观望,看特朗普总统是否会干预这个案子。作为听证会的一部分,孟晚舟本周已在不列颠哥伦比亚省温哥华出庭。
In the meantime, Huawei has battled against many of its customers and nations that have said they would pull back from buying its products. China has also retaliated against Canada by detaining several Canadian citizens. This week, Canadian officials also complained that China had begun to suspend the import of canola from the country.
与此同时,华为也和已表示将撤销购买其产品的许多客户和国家进行了抗争。中国还逮捕了几名加拿大公民,以此报复了加拿大本周,加拿大官员还抱怨说,中国已开始暂停从加拿大进口菜籽油。
Lu Kang, the spokesman for China’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, said on Thursday that the Chinese decision was based on the discovery of pests in Canadian canola.
中国外交部发言人陆慷周四表示,中方的决定是基于在加拿大菜籽油中发现了害虫。
 China has a long history of interrupting trade with other countries in the middle of diplomatic spats. In September 2010, China halted the export of rare earth metals to Japan for two months during a dispute over the sovereignty of a cluster of tiny islands between Japan and Taiwan. Weeks later, China suspended trade talks with Norway and then halted the import of Norwegian salmon after the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to a Chinese dissident by a Norwegian committee.
中国在与其他国家发生外交争端期间中断贸易的做法有悠久的历史。2010年9月,因为日本和台湾就几座小岛的主权发生争议,中国暂停向日本出口稀土矿石两个月。几周后,由于挪威的一个委员会将诺贝尔和平奖授予了一名中国异见人士,中国暂停了与挪威的贸易谈判,之后还暂停了从挪威进口三文鱼。
Huawei’s lawsuit argues that by singling out the company, Congress has violated constitutional principles on the separation of powers and also the bill of attainder clause, which prohibits legislation that singles out a person or entity for punishment without trial.
华为的诉讼主张称,国会专门针对华为的做法违背了三权分立的宪法原则以及“褫夺公权的法案”条款,后者禁止在不经审判的情况下专门针对一个人或实体进行惩罚的立法。
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“The actual and intended effect of these prohibitions is to bar Huawei from significant segments of the U.S. market for telecommunications equipment and services, thereby inflicting immediate and ongoing economic, competitive, and reputational harms on Huawei,” the company’s lawyers wrote in the suit.
“这些禁止条款的实际和预期效果是阻止华为参与美国市场电信设备与服务领域的重要部分,从而在经济上、竞争上、名誉上给华为造成直接的、持续的损害,”华为律师在诉讼中写道。
They added that the prohibitions have been carried out without “a fair hearing or the opportunity to rebut the allegations against it, and without opportunity for escape.”
他们还称,这些禁止条款在实施前没有给予“公正的听证会或就相关指控予以辩驳的机会,以及逃脱的机会”。
The Russian cybersecurity firm Kaspersky Lab filed, and ultimately lost, a similar legal challenge two years ago. After the Department of Homeland Security directed federal agencies to ban Kaspersky products from their systems, Congress codified the directive into a law.
两年前,俄罗斯网络安全公司卡巴斯基实验室(Kaspersky Lab)曾发起过类似的法律挑战,但最终败诉。在国土安全部指示联邦机构禁止在它们的系统中使用卡巴斯基产品之后,国会将该指令写入了法律。
Kaspersky filed two lawsuits arguing it had been singled out for punishment without a trial. A judge ultimately dismissed the lawsuits, pointing out they came from a legitimate desire to protect American networks.
卡巴斯基提起了两项诉讼,称其不经审判便被专门针对进行惩罚。法官最后驳回了诉讼,指出指令是出自保护美国网络的正当动机。
While the Justice Department filed criminal charges against Huawei earlier this year, those suits focus on the company’s connections to evading American sanctions on Iran and its theft of intellectual property. Neither relates to the core question faced by governments around the world about whether using Huawei’s equipment in new 5G networks causes security concerns.
虽然司法部今年年初对华为提起过刑事控告,但这些诉讼关注的是华为逃避美国对伊朗的制裁和窃取知识产权。两者都和政府在全世界所面临的核心问题无关,即在新的5G网络中使用华为产品是否会引起安全顾虑。
The new suit seeks to focus on that question, and push the United States government to make the case. While it is unlikely Huawei will reverse American opposition to the company, it may hope to win back representatives from governments in countries like those in Europe, who will be closely following the lawsuit.
新的诉讼寻求关注这个问题,并促使美国政府阐明案由。华为不太可能以此扭转美国的抵制态度,但它可能希望赢回欧洲一些国家政府的支持,后者将密切关注该诉讼。
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Debate about the security of Huawei’s systems has come at a critical moment, with countries around the world preparing to spend hundreds of billions of dollars on expanding cellular networks to next generation 5G technology.
关于华为系统安全性的争论正值一个关键时刻,全世界各国正准备斥资数千亿美元用于扩展下一代5G技术的蜂窝网络。
The new networks will have faster speeds, but also be used to connect a bewildering number of new sensors and data-collection systems alongside smartphones. That would make vulnerabilities in the networks potentially more serious than with the cell networks of the past.
新的网络将更高速,同时也将被用于连接搭载于智能手机的众多新型传感器和数据收集系统。比起以往的蜂窝网络,这可能会使网络中的脆弱点更加严重。
Mr. Lu, the Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman, expressed support for Huawei’s legal action.
中国外交部发言人陆慷对华为采取法律行动表示支持。
“We believe that it is perfectly justified and fully understandable for companies to safeguard their legitimate rights and interests through legal means,” he said.
“我们认为企业通过合法的方式来维护自身的正当权益是完全正当的,也完全可以理解,”他说。
Many Chinese expressed support on social media for Huawei’s legal stand against the United States. Some others noted with sarcasm the difficulties of similar legal recourse for companies or individuals within China’s system.
许多中国人在社交媒体上表示支持华为对美国采取的法律立场。另一些人则讽刺地指出,在中国的法律体制下,很难有企业或个人会采取类似的诉诸法律方式。
“So you can sue a government?” wrote one user on Weibo, the Chinese social media service. “Interesting. All of a sudden I’m thinking, actually I don’t dare think about it.”.
“这么说,你可以起诉政府啦?”一位用户在中国社交媒体服务微博上写道。“有意思。我突然在想,其实我不敢这么想。”