SHANGHAI — Accusing the United States of “typical trade bullying,” China on Friday imposed $34 billion in retaliatory tariffs on American soybeans, cars and other products, suggesting dim prospects for resolving a potentially bruising trade war between the two economic powerhouses.
上海——周五,指责美国是“典型的贸易霸凌主义”的中国,对美国的大豆、汽车和其他产品征收340亿美元的报复性关税,这显示出,两个经济大国间的一场惨烈的贸易战可能在所难免
Beijing said on Friday that its levies had kicked in immediately after the Trump administration’s tariffs went into effect, just past midnight in Washington. The 545 goods targeted by China for tariffs, which include beef, seafood, dairy and other farm goods in addition to automobiles, were chosen to hit President Trump’s supporters in the agricultural and industrial parts of the Midwest.
北京上周五表示,特朗普政府的关税在华盛顿午夜刚过甫一生效,中国的征税即行实施。它选择了545项商品征收关税,其中除了汽车,还有牛肉、海鲜、奶制品和其他农产品,以此打击特朗普总统在中西部农业和工业地区的支持者。
As it has in the past, China used the moment to cast itself as a defender of the global trade order. Beijing officials have portrayed Mr. Trump’s threats to tax as much as $450 billion worth of Chinese goods as a threat to global prosperity.
中国一如既往地利用这个机会把自己塑造成全球贸易秩序的捍卫者。北京官员把特朗普对价值高达4500亿美元的中国商品征税的威胁,说成是对全球繁荣的威胁。
“The wrong actions of the U.S. have brazenly violated the rules of the World Trade Organization, attacked the whole world’s economic sustainability and obstructed the global economy’s recovery,” Lu Kang, a spokesman for China’s Foreign Ministry, said in a daily news briefing. “It will bring disaster to multinational corporations, small and medium businesses and normal consumers across the world.”
“美方这一错误做法公然违反了世界贸易组织规则,将打击全球贸易秩序、引发全球市场动荡、阻碍全球经济复苏,”中国外交部发言人陆慷在每天的例行记者会上说。“世界范围内更多跨国企业、中小企业和普通消费者都将被殃及。”
广告
China’s state-controlled news media echoed the sentiment.
中国的官方媒体也表达了同样的态度。
“As the American side has gradually closed in on China, it has aroused the ire of Chinese society, and made Chinese people more clearheaded, more united,” said an editorial on the website of Global Times, a nationalist tabloid owned by the Communist Party. “Washington has obviously underestimated the giant force that the world’s opposition and China’s retaliation can produce.”
“美方对中国的步步紧逼,激起了中国社会的极大愤慨,让中国人变得更清醒,更团结,更自强,”共产党拥有的民族主义小报《环球时报》在网站上发表的一篇社论说。“显然,华盛顿大大低估了,世界的反对和中国的反击,所能产生的巨大力量。”
But Chinese news outlets have stopped short of language that would suggest appetite for a major escalation, such as a consumer boycott of American brands.
但中国的新闻媒体已经紧急叫停了暗示有意将贸易战大规模升级的措辞,例如消费者对美国品牌的抵制。
China has become a key market for brands such as Apple, Nike, Starbucks and General Motors. Consumer boycotts have proven effective in Beijing’s earlier disputes with South Korea, Japan and the Philippines. But targeting American goods could be trickier. The iPhones, Chevrolets and other goods that American companies sell in China are often made in China, and by Chinese workers.
中国已成为苹果(Apple)、耐克(Nike)、星巴克(Starbucks)和通用汽车(General Motors)等品牌的关键市场。在之前北京与韩国、日本和菲律宾发生争端的时候,消费者的抵制已证实有效。但针对美国商品的抵制可能会更为棘手。苹果手机、雪佛兰汽车和其他在中国销售的美国产品,往往是由中国工人在中国生产的。
Still, some consumers said they could imagine making do without iPhones or American cars as a way to strike back against Washington.
尽管如此,一些消费者表示,把抵制苹果手机或美国汽车作为回击华盛顿的一种方式并非不可想象。
“Of course I want China to fight back,” said Cathy Yuan, 32, who was shopping at an upscale Shanghai supermarket on Friday. “We are defending our rights as a nation.”
“我当然支持中国反击,”32岁的凯茜·袁周五在上海一家高档超市购物的时候说。“这是为了我们国家的权利。”
广告
Other shoppers sounded warier. Fresh American beef and other high-end imports — goods that are likely to become more expensive as more tariffs are imposed — lined the shelves.
其他的购物者则更为谨慎。货架上排列着新鲜的美国牛肉和其他高端进口产品,随着关税的提高,这些产品可能会变得更加昂贵。
“High-quality fresh food is already quite expensive, and with tariffs, prices will go up even further,” said Wan Yang, a 27-year-old seafood dealer who imports black cod and king crab from Alaska.
“高品质的新鲜食品已经相当昂贵,加上关税,价格会进一步上涨,”27岁的海鲜经销商杨万(音)说。他从阿拉斯加进口银鳕鱼和帝王蟹。
Health and hygiene concerns have led China’s increasingly well-off shoppers to prefer food imported from the United States or elsewhere.
出于健康和卫生方面的担忧,中国日益富裕的消费者喜欢购买从美国或者其他地方进口的食品。
“We buy imported goods because we feel they are safer to eat,” said Mike Zheng, 30, who was browsing the aisles with his 2-year-old son. “If there were domestic substitutes, then tariffs would be O.K. But domestic products can’t keep up, so we’ll just have to accept higher prices.”
“我们都买进口的,觉得比较安全,”现年30岁的迈克·郑和他两岁的儿子在浏览架子上的商品,他说:“如果国内有替代的,那么加关税也可以,可是国内替代跟不上,我们就只能接受涨价。”
That could become a problem for Chinese leaders. Inflation is an economic gauge that is of paramount, constant concern. In the past, rising prices have contributed to political instability. The Chinese government has used price controls and subsidies to tamp down inflation, but that could get expensive quickly.
这对中国领导人来说可能会成为一个问题。通货膨胀是一个最为重要、一直令人担忧的经济指标。过去,物价上涨曾导致政局不稳。中国政府已经通过控制价格和补贴来抑制通货膨胀,但这些方法可能很快会变得成本太高。
It may not just be buyers of American steaks who get hurt. Soybeans are the highest-value farm import from the United States that is affected by Friday’s tariffs. American growers supplied one-third of the soy that China shipped in last year, mainly to produce cooking oil and animal feed.
受伤的可能不仅是美国牛排的买家。大豆是从美国进口的价值最高的农产品,也受到了星期五关税的影响。美国种植者提供了中国去年大豆进口量的三分之一,主要用于生产食用油和动物饲料。
广告
“Global soybean supply and demand is tightly balanced right now,” said Gong Yanhai, a senior analyst in Shanghai with Huatai Asset Management. Taxing American soy, Mr. Gong said, also means that China will pay more to buy beans from its biggest supplier, Brazil, where premiums per bushel have already risen in anticipation of the tariffs.
“目前全球大豆供需紧平衡,”华泰资产管理公司驻上海高级分析师宫衍海说。他说,对美国大豆征税也意味着中国将向其最大的供应商巴西支付更多的钱购买大豆,巴西每蒲式的溢价已经因为预期的关税上涨。
Around China, the trade war is being watched with a mix of worry, ire at the United States — and frank curiosity about it all.
在中国各地,人们正怀着担忧、对美国的愤怒和对这一切单纯的好奇心注视着贸易战。
On the social media platform Weibo, word went around on Friday of a ship speeding toward China to beat the tariffs on its precious cargo: American soybeans. News of the vessel’s race against the clock was reported earlier by Bloomberg.
在社交媒体平台新浪微博上,周五有传言称一艘载着珍贵的货物——美国大豆——的船正高速驶向中国,想赶在征收关税前抵达。彭博社(Bloomberg)早前报道了这艘船与时间赛跑的消息。
The trade war could have equally important effects on the $2 trillion worth of goods that the country sells to the rest of the world, said Hua Min, an economist at Fudan University in Shanghai. A decade ago, in the wake of the global financial crisis, China’s exports cratered, and consumers and businesses at home could not spend enough to keep factories humming.
上海复旦大学经济学家华民说,贸易战对中国向世界其他地方出售的价值两万亿美元的商品可能产生同样重要的影响。十年前,在全球金融危机之后,中国的出口大幅萎缩,国内的消费者和企业支出不足以维持工厂运转。
“The driving force of the Chinese economy is mainly exports,” Mr. Hua said. “If there are no exports, there will be manufacturing overcapacity. Manufacturing overcapacity will lead to debt. And debt will affect companies’ balance sheets. Then it will be 2008 all over again.”
“中国经济的动力主要来自出口”,华民说。“如果没有出口,产能就会过剩。产能过剩负债就会增加,负债增加资产负债表就会变坏。这就会像2008年一样。”
At a Tesla dealership in downtown Shanghai on Friday, there was not much love for the idea of paying even more for the premium electric vehicles.
在上海市中心的一个特斯拉(Tesla)经销商店,高档电动车的价格要进一步升高让一些人不太能接受。
广告
“The trade war won’t last forever,” said Charlie Lin, 25, who works in real estate and was looking at cars. “China and the U.S. definitely have ways of resolving it. After all, an endless fight would be bad for both countries. These are just temporary measures.”
“贸易战不会无休止打下去,”25岁的看车顾客、在房地产行业工作的查理·林说。“中美肯定会有解决办法,毕竟一直打下去对两国都不好,现在只是暂时措施。”
Still, “China must accept this challenge,” Mr. Lin said. “We have enough stamina to fight back. We will find out what America is made of.”
不过,“中国肯定要应战,”他说。“我们也有足够的底气还击,顺便试探美国是什么水平。”