SEOUL, South Korea —Since Kim Jong-un took power in 2011, North Korea has eased restrictions on markets, allowing many families to make the bulk of their earnings from such economic activity.
韩国首尔——自金正恩2011年掌权以来,朝鲜放宽了对市场的限制,允许许多家庭通过此类经济活动赚取大批收入。
But the flourishing markets have a dark side: a prey-and-predator relationship between the mostly female traders and male officials who extort bribes and demand sexual favors from them, Human Rights Watch said in a report released on Thursday.
但人权观察(Human Rights Watch)在周四发布的一份报告中表示,繁荣的市场有黑暗的一面:大多为女性的商人和男性官员之间存在猎物和捕食者关系,后者勒索贿赂并要求前者提供性服务。
“Having sex with men who have power over you, or letting them touch all over your body, is a necessity to survive,” a former trader in her 20s told the rights group. “It never occurred to me that I could or would want to do anything about it. It was just how things are.”
“和那些权力高过你的人发生性关系、或让他们对你上下其手,是生存的必要条件,”一位20多岁的前商贩告诉人权观察组织。“我从未想过我能够或者想要对此采取任何行动。事情就是这样。“
Human Rights Watch said it interviewed 29 women who fled North Korea after Mr. Kim took power, and who agreed to discuss the abuse they suffered at the hands of North Korean officials. They all used pseudonyms to protect their privacy and family members left behind in the North.
人权观察组织声称他们采访了29名在金正恩掌权后逃离朝鲜的女性,她们同意谈及在朝鲜官员手下遭受的凌辱。她们都使用假名来保护她们的隐私和留在朝鲜的家庭成员。
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Since famine devastated their country in the 1990s, 32,000 North Koreans have fled to South Korea, most of them women. Many reported widespread sexual violence in their home country.
自从20世纪90年代饥荒肆虐他们的国家以来,已有3.2万名朝鲜人逃往韩国,其中大多数是女性。许多人报告说他们的祖国普遍存在性暴力现象。
In 2014, a United Nations commission documented systematic human rights violations in the North, including sexual violence. The Human Rights Watch report reinforced those findings, focusing exclusively on sexual abuse by men in positions of official power.
2014年,一个联合国委员会记录了朝鲜这些有系统的侵犯人权行为,包括性暴力行为。人权观察组织的报告强化了这些发现,专门针对掌握公权力的男性施加的性虐待。
Since the famine in North Korea, many women have become the main breadwinners of their families, selling goods in the newly opened markets and visiting China in search of food and cash. Away from home, they found that those who were supposed to look after them were instead their predators: police officers, prison guards and inspectors on trains.
自朝鲜饥荒以来,许多女性已经成为家庭主要经济来源,在新开张的市场上销售商品,并到中国寻找食物和钱。在远离家乡时,她们发现本应该照顾她们的人却是她们的掠夺者:警察、狱警和火车查票员。
The former trader in her 20s said she was sexually assaulted several times by police officials and train inspectors between 2010 and 2014, when she fled North Korea to resettle in the South.
这位20多岁的前商贩表示,她在2010年至2014年期间逃离朝鲜,在韩国定居时,曾多次遭到警官和火车查票员的性侵犯。
For traders, resisting such exploitation could mean losing their main source of income and jeopardizing their families’ survival. The officials could declare the women’s travel and trading illegal on a whim, confiscate their goods and even send them to prison, the report said.
对于商贩来说,抵制这种剥削可能意味着失去她们的主要收入来源并危及家庭的生存。报道称,官员们可以随心所欲地宣布女性的出行和交易非法,没收她们的商品,甚至将她们送进监狱。
“Market guards or police officials would ask me to follow them to an empty room outside the market, or some other place they’d pick,” said a former trader in her 40s. “They consider us toys. We are at the mercy of men.”
“市场警卫或警官会让我跟随他们到市场外的空房间,或者他们选择的其他地方,”一位40多岁的前商贩说。“他们把我们当玩物。我们受男人的摆布。”
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“Sometimes,” she said of the psychological torment from such abuse, “out of nowhere, you cry at night and don’t know why.”
“有时,”她谈到受此凌辱的心理折磨,“你会在晚上莫名其妙地哭泣,不知道为什么。”
The women interviewed by Human Rights Watch said they seldom reported the crimes for fear of reprisal, and because of widespread stigma attached to rape victims. The coerced sex has become so common that the men don’t think their actions are wrong, and the women have come to accept such behavior, some said.
被人权观察采访的女性说,由于害怕遭到报复,且强奸受害者普遍被污名化,她们很少报告这些罪行。一些人说,强迫性行为变得如此普遍,以至于男人们不认为自己的行为是错误的,女人们也已经接受了这种行为。
“Corruption is so rampant that anybody without power has no choice,” said the husband of the trader in her 40s. “Traders like my wife have to accept that sexual coercion is part of social and market dynamics. It is the only way to survive.”
“腐败太猖獗了,任何没有权力的人都别无选择,”这位40多岁的商贩的丈夫说道。“像我妻子这样的商贩必须接受,性强迫是社会和市场运转的一部分。这是生存的唯一途径。”
“I know what I know,” he said. “But we don’t talk about it.”
“事情我都看在眼里,”他说。“但我们不会去谈论。”
Also vulnerable are women who enter China illegally to find work or smuggle goods. When they are caught and repatriated, they are exposed to widespread sexual and other abuse in holding centers and prisons, according to Human Rights Watch, whose report echoed earlier findings on that issue.
非法进入中国寻找工作或走私货物的女性也很易受伤害。据人权观察组织称,在被抓获并被遣返后,她们在拘留所和监狱中遭受了广泛的性虐待和其他虐待,其报告与之前关于该问题的调查发现相呼应。
In a 2014 survey of 1,125 North Korean defectors by the South’s Korea Institute for National Unification, nearly 38 percent said that sexual harassment and rape were “common” in those facilities. Thirty-three of the defectors said they had been raped there.
在韩国统一研究院(Korea Institute for National Unification)2014年对1125名脱北者的调查中,近38%的人表示,性骚扰和强奸在这些设施中很“常见”。33名脱北者说她们在那里遭到强奸。
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“Every night, some woman would be forced to leave with a guard and be raped,” a former trader in her 30s who was detained in a holding center told Human Rights Watch. “Click, click, click was the most horrible sound I ever heard. It was the sound of the key of the cell of our prison room opening.”
“每天晚上,都有一些女人被迫跟着警卫离开并被强奸,”一名30多岁、曾被关押在一个拘留所的前商贩告诉人权观察。“咔哒、咔哒、咔哒,这是我听过的最可怕的声音。这是用钥匙开我们牢房的声音。
Another former inmate said: “The idea that sexual violence is wrong, that it would not be my fault, that some ‘law person’ could be there to try to protect me could have never even occurred to me while living in North Korea.”
另一名前囚犯说:“性暴力是错误的、那不是我的错、有一些‘法律人’是会保护我的,这些观念在我生活在朝鲜时从来没有想过。”
Last July, North Korean officials told a United Nations committee that just nine people in the country were convicted of rape in 2008, seven in 2011 and five in 2015, Human Rights Watch said.
人权观察称,去年7月,朝鲜官员告诉联合国委员会,2008年该国仅有9人被判强奸罪,2011年有7人,2015年有5人。
“While North Korean officials seem to think such ridiculously low numbers show the country to be a violence-free paradise, the numbers are a powerful indictment of their utter failure to address sexual violence in the country,” the report said. “While sexual and gender-based violence is of concern everywhere, growing evidence suggests it is endemic in North Korea.”
“虽然朝鲜官员似乎认为低得荒谬的数字显示该国是一个没有暴力的天堂,但这些数字却正是对他们完全未能解决性暴力问题的有力控诉,”报告称。“当性和性别暴力在各地都引起关切的时候,越来越多的证据表明它正在朝鲜肆虐。”
The group said it also interviewed eight former high-ranking officials from North Korea who corroborated the victims’ accounts.
该组织表示,它还采访了来自朝鲜的八名前高级官员,他们证实了受害者的说法。
“North Korean women would probably say ‘Me Too’ if they thought there was any way to obtain justice,” said Kenneth Roth, the executive director of Human Rights Watch. “But their voices are silenced in Kim Jong-un’s dictatorship.”
“如果朝鲜女性认为有任何办法获得正义,她们可能会说‘我也是’,”人权观察总干事肯尼思·罗斯(Kenneth Roth)说。“但他们的声音在金正恩的独裁政权中被压制了。”