SEOUL, South Korea — In late 2013, Jang Song Thaek, an uncle of Kim Jong Un, the North Korean leader, was taken to the Gang Gun Military Academy in a Pyongyang suburb.
韩国首尔——2013年底,朝鲜领导人金正恩(Kim Jong Un)的姑父张成泽(Jang Song-thaek)被带去位于平壤郊区的强军军事学院(Gang Gun Military Academy)。
Hundreds of officials were gathered there to witness the execution of Jang's two trusted deputies in the administrative department of the ruling Workers' Party.
成百上千名官员被召集到那里,观看张成泽在执政党劳动党(Workers’ Party)行政部的两名副手遭处决的过程。这两人深得张成泽的信任。
The two men, Ri Ryong Ha and Jang Su Gil, were torn apart by antiaircraft machine guns, according to South Korea's National Intelligence Service. The executioners then incinerated their bodies with flamethrowers.
据韩国国家情报院(National Intelligence Service)称,高射机枪将李龙河(Ri Ryong Ha)和张秀吉(Jang Su-gil)二人打成粉碎。之后,行刑人员用火焰喷射器将两人的尸体烧成了灰烬。
Jang Song Thaek, widely considered the second-most powerful figure in the North, fainted during the ordeal, according to a new book published in South Korea that offers a rare glimpse into the secretive Pyongyang regime.
据韩国出版的一本新书称,普遍被视为朝鲜二号人物的张成泽在此期间晕倒了。这本书让外界得以窥视平壤政权难得一见的神秘内幕。
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“Son-in-Law of a Theocracy,” by Ra Jong-yil, a former deputy director of the South's National Intelligence Service, is a rich biography of Jang, the most prominent victim of the purges his young nephew has conducted since assuming power in 2011.
这本书叫《神权国家的女婿》(Son-in-Law of a Theocracy),作者罗钟一(Ra Jong-yil)是韩国国家情报院前副院长。该书是张成泽的一部传记,内容丰富。在他年轻的侄子2011年掌权以来开展的清洗中,张成泽是最有名的受害者。
Jang was convicted of treason in 2013. He was executed at the same place and in the same way as his deputies, the South Korean intelligence agency said.
张成泽2013年被判处叛国罪。韩国国家情报院称,张成泽被处决的地点和方式,均与他的两名副手相同。
The book asserts that although he was a fixture of the North Korean political elite for decades, he dreamed of reforming his country.
该书称,尽管数十年来一直属于朝鲜的政治精英,但张成泽梦想着改革这个国家。
“With his execution, North Korea lost virtually the only person there who could have helped the country introduce reform and openness,” Ra said during a recent interview.
“张成泽被处决后,朝鲜实际上失去了唯一能帮助该国实行改革开放的人,”罗钟一最近接受采访时说。
Ra, who is also a professor of political science and a former South Korean ambassador to Japan and Britain, mined existing publications but also interviewed sources in South Korea, Japan and China, including high-ranking defectors from the North who spoke on the condition of anonymity.
罗钟一也是一名政治学教授,还曾担任韩国驻日本和英国大使。他不仅对已有的出版物进行了深入研究,还在韩国、日本和中国采访掌握消息的人士,包括位高权重的脱北者。这些脱北者要求匿名受访。
2013年12月12日,行刑前张成泽被押上法庭。
2013年12月12日,行刑前张成泽被押上法庭。 Yonhap News Agency, via Agence France-Presse — Getty Images
Jang met one of the daughters of North Korea's founder, Kim Il Sung, while both attended Kim Il Sung University in the mid-1960s. The daughter, Kim Kyong Hee, developed a crush on Jang, who was tall and humorous — and sang and played the accordion.
60年代中期,张成泽认识了朝鲜开国领袖金日成(Kim Il Sung)的一个女儿金敬姬(Kim Kyong Hee)。当时,两人都在金日成大学(Kim Il Sung University)就读。金敬姬喜欢上了身材高大、性格幽默、既会唱歌又能拉手风琴的张成泽。
Her father transferred the young man to a provincial college to keep the two apart. But she hopped in her Soviet Volga sedan to see Jang each weekend.
为了把两人分开,金日成把张成泽转去了一所地方院校。但金敬姬每个周末都会乘坐自己的苏联产伏尔加(Volga)轿车去看望张成泽。
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Once they married in 1972, Jang's career took off under the patronage of Kim Jong Il, his brother-in-law and the designated successor of the regime.
两人1972年结婚。自此,在内兄、朝鲜政权指定接班人金正日(Kim Jong Il)的扶植下,张成泽平步青云。
In his memoir, a Japanese sushi chef for Kim Jong Il from 1988 to 2001 who goes by the alias Kenji Fujimoto remembered Jang as a fun-loving prankster who was a regular at banquets that could last until morning or even stretch a few days. A key feature of the events was a “pleasure squad” of young, attractive women who would dance the cancan, sing American country songs or perform a striptease, according to the book and accounts by defectors.
一个于1988年到2001年为金正日担任寿司厨师的人以藤本健二(Kenji Fujimoto)为化名,撰写了一本回忆录,书中他回忆张成泽很风趣,爱开玩笑,经常出席金正日主办的筵席到凌晨,甚至持续数日的宴会。根据这本书以及其他脱北者的描述,这些活动中少不了一群年轻漂亮的女人,名为“娱乐队”,她们会跳康康舞,唱美国乡村歌曲,表演脱衣舞。
Jang also mobilized North Korean diplomats abroad to import Danish dairy products, Black Sea caviar, French cognac and Japanese electronics — gifts Kim handed out during his parties to keep his elites loyal.
张成泽还调动在国外的朝鲜外交人员进口丹麦乳制品、黑海鱼子酱、法国白兰地和日本电器。金正日拿这些作为礼物分发给党员,巩固精英阶层对自己的忠诚。
But North Korean diplomats who have defected to South Korea also said that during his frequent trips overseas to shop for Kim, Jang would drink heavily and speak dejectedly about people dying of hunger back home.
但是叛逃到韩国的朝鲜外交官也说,经常去海外为金正日购物期间,张成泽经常喝得烂醉,沮丧地说起国内饿死的人们。
Few benefited more than Jang from the regime he loyally served. But he was never fully embraced by the Kim family because he was not blood kin. This “liminal existence” enabled him to see the absurdities of the regime more clearly than any other figure within it, Ra wrote.
张成泽从这个他效忠的政权中获益之多,几乎无人能比。但他从未被金家彻底接受,因为他并不是血亲。罗钟一写道,这层“隔膜”令他可以比政权内部的其他人更好地看清这个政权的荒诞之处。
Ra said Hwang Jang Yop, a North Korean party secretary who defected to Seoul in 1997 and lived here until his death in 2010, shared a conversation he once had with Jang. When told that the North's economy was cratering, Jang responded sarcastically: “How can an economy already at the bottom go further down?”
罗钟一说,1997年逃到首尔,并在那里生活到2010年去世的前朝鲜劳动党中央书记黄长烨透露,自己曾经和张成泽有过一次交谈。被告知朝鲜经济即将完蛋时,张成泽讽刺地回答:“一个已经触底的经济,还能再怎么下滑呢?”
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ang's frequent partying with the “pleasure squad” strained his marriage. Senior defectors from the North said it was an open secret among the Pyongyang elite that the couple both had extramarital affairs.
张成泽经常和“娱乐队”开派对,令他的婚姻状况非常紧张。高层脱北者说,张成泽夫妻两人都有婚外情,这在平壤的精英阶层中是公开的秘密。
Their only child, Jang Kum Song, killed herself in Paris in 2006. She overdosed on sleeping pills after the Pyongyang government caught wind of her dating a Frenchman and summoned her home.
两人唯一的女儿张金松2006年在巴黎自杀。平壤政府听说她和一个法国男子约会后召她回国,她便吞下了大量安眠药。
Still, the marriage endured. When Kim Jong Il banished Jang three times for overstepping his authority, his wife intervened on his behalf.
然而这段婚姻还在继续,金正日曾因张成泽挑战自己的权威,三次放逐他,他的妻子均出面进行干涉。
After Kim suffered a stroke in 2008 and died in 2011, Jang helped his young nephew, Kim Jong Un, establish himself as successor. At the same time, he vastly expanded his own influence — and ambition.
金正日2008年罹患中风并于2011年去世后,张成泽帮助年轻的侄子金正恩站稳脚跟,接下大权。与此同时,他也大举扩张自己的影响力和野心。
He wrested the lucrative right of exporting coal to China from the military and gave it to his administrative department. He purged his rivals, including Ri Yong Ho, the chief of the military's general staff, and U Dong Chuk, a deputy director at the Ministry of State Security, the North's secret police.
他从军方手中夺去了向中国出口煤炭的权利,并将这桩利润丰厚的生意交给了自己领导的行政部。他还清除异己,包括军队总参谋长李英浩(Ri Yong Ho)和朝鲜秘密警察机构国家安全部(Ministry of State Security)副部长禹东测(U Dong Chuk)。
Jang's campaign for more influence was apparently aimed at pushing for the kind of economic overhaul that China has introduced, Ra wrote. But he underestimated how unpalatable the idea was to Kim Jong Un, whose totalitarian rule would be undermined by such reform.
罗钟一写道,张成泽扩大影响力的行动,似乎旨在推行中国实施的那种经济改革。但他低估了金正恩对这个想法的反对程度,这种改革会削弱金正恩的极权统治。
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Ra said it was impossible to establish the exact sequence of events that led to Jang's downfall. But it was clear his hubris played a role. At the height of his power, photographs in the North Korean media showed Jang leaning on an armrest, looking almost bored, while his nephew spoke.
罗钟一称,导致张成泽下台的那些事件,不可能理清确切的先后顺序。但很显然,他的傲慢自大是其中一个因素。处在权力巅峰时,朝鲜媒体上的照片显示,他侄子讲话时,他靠在一侧的扶手上,像是一幅很厌烦的样子。
Announcing his execution, North Korea said Jang, “human scum worse than a dog,” had betrayed the Kim family by plotting to overthrow the younger Kim, using economic collapse as a pretext, and to rule the country himself as premier and “reformer.”
宣布处决张成泽的消息时,朝鲜称张成泽是“连狗都不如的人渣”,背叛了金家,密谋以经济崩溃为借口推翻金正恩,自己以总理和“改革者”的身份统治朝鲜。
He was accused of planting his followers in key posts and profiteering from minerals exports. His indictment pointedly noted that Jang had stood up and clapped only “halfheartedly” when Kim was being upheld as supreme leader.
张成泽被控在关键岗位上安插自己的追随者,并从矿产出口中牟取暴利。他的公诉书中特意指出,金正恩被拥立为最高领导人时,张成泽只是“敷衍了事”地站起来鼓了鼓掌。
In 2013, Kim, after hearing complaints about Jang's expansion of power, ordered his department to relinquish the management of a fishing farm and a condensed milk factory. But officials loyal to their “Comrade No. 1,” Jang, blocked those who arrived to carry out Kim's orders from entering their premises.
2013年,在听到对张成泽扩大权力的抱怨后,金正恩命令张成泽领导的行政部,放弃对一家养鱼场和一家炼乳厂的管理权。但忠于自己的“一号同志”(Comrade No. 1)张成泽的官员们,拒绝让那些前去执行金正恩命令的人入内。
It was probably the last straw for Kim, still unsure about himself and extremely sensitive about any challenge to his supposedly monolithic leadership. Meanwhile, Jang's enemies in the secret police were eager to go after him.
对金正恩来说,这可能是压死骆驼的最后那根稻草。那时的金正恩依然缺乏自信,自己按理说应该独揽的领导权在受到任何挑战时,都极度敏感。与此同时,张成泽在秘密警察机构的政敌急不可耐地想抓捕他。
“There was no indication that he had a lawyer or was allowed to speak for himself during his trial,” Ra said. “It was not a trial but a murder.”
“没有迹象表明他有律师辩护,或是获准在庭审期间为自己辩护,”罗钟一说。“那不是审判,是谋杀。”
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Jang's name has been expurgated from all official records in the North. Hundreds of his associates were purged. His wife is alive but sickly, according to the South Korean intelligence agency.
张成泽的名字已经从朝鲜的所有官方纪录中抹去。他的几百名下属都遭到清洗。据韩国情报机关称,他的妻子还活着,但身患疾病。
But some people in Pyongyang still remember his role in the tall apartment buildings, water parks and other showpiece projects he once zealously promoted to glorify his nephew's nascent leadership.
但是平壤也有人依然记得,他在高层公寓、江边公园以及其他样板项目中扮演的角色,那些地方都是他热心兴建的,用来赞美外甥当年羽翼未丰的领导。